Cisársky erb dynastie Hohenstaufen

Cisársky erb dynastie Hohenstaufen


We are searching data for your request:

Forums and discussions:
Manuals and reference books:
Data from registers:
Wait the end of the search in all databases.
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.


Dynastia Hohenstaufen tra Arte, Araldica, Storia, Memorie familiari, Cronaca, Scienza.

Hohenstaufen boli dynastiou nemeckých kráľov, z ktorých mnohí boli korunovaní aj za cisára Svätej rímskej ríše a vojvodov zo Švábska. Vlastné meno, prevzaté z ich hradu vo Švábsku, je Staufen.

Keď posledný člen dynastie Salianovcov, Henrich V., cisár Svätej ríše rímskej, zomrel bez dediča, existovali spory o nástupníctvo. Frederick a Conrad, dvaja súčasní Staufenovci, boli vnukmi Henricha III., Cisára Svätej rímskej ríše a synovcami Henricha V. Po smrti intervenujúceho kráľa a cisára Lothara III. Zo Supplinburgu sa v roku 1137 stal Konrád nemeckým Konrádom III.

Obsah
1 Členovia rodiny Hohenstaufen
1.1 Svätí rímski cisári a králi Nemecka
1,2 vojvodov zo Swabi

Členovia rodiny Hohenstaufen

Svätí rímski cisári a králi Nemecka
Konrád III., Kráľ 1138-1152
Frederick I Barbarossa, kráľ 1152-1190, cisár po roku 1155
Henrich VI., Kráľ 1190-1197, cisár po roku 1191
Filip Švábsky, kráľ 1198-1208
Fridrich II., Kráľ 1208-1250, cisár po roku 1220
Henry (VII), kráľ 1220 - 1235 (pod jeho otcom)
Konrád IV., Kráľ 1237-1254 (pod vedením svojho otca)
Posledný vládnuci Hohenstaufen, Konrád IV., Nebol nikdy korunovaný za cisára. Po 20 rokoch bol za kráľa zvolený prvý Habsburg.

Vojvodovia zo Švábska
Poznámka: Niektorí z nasledujúcich vojvodov sú už vyššie uvedení ako nemeckí králi

Fridrich I., švábsky vojvoda (Friedrich) (r. 1079 - 1105)
Fridrich II., Švábsky vojvoda (r. 1105 - 1147)
Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor (Frederick III Swabia) (r. 1147 - 1152) King in 1152 and Holy Roman Emperor in 1155
Frederick IV., Švábsky vojvoda (r. 1152 - 1167)
Frederick V, vojvoda zo Švábska (r. 1167 - 1170)
Frederick VI., Švábsky vojvoda (r. 1170 - 1191)
Konrád II., Švábsky vojvoda (r. 1191 - 1196)
Filip Švábsky (r. 1196 - 1208) kráľ v roku 1198
Frederick II., Svätý rímsky cisár (r. 1212 - 1216) kráľ v roku 1212 a cisár Svätej ríše rímskej v roku 1220
Henrich (VII) Nemecko (r. 1216 - 1235), kráľ 1220 - 1235
Konrád IV. (R. 1235 - 1254) kráľ v roku 1237
Conrad V (Conradin) (r. 1254 - 1268)
Pozri tiež: Rodokmeň vojvodov zo Švábska

Pozri tiež
Zoznam panovníkov Neapola a Sicílie. Králi Hohenstaufen vládli na Sicílii od roku 1194 do smrti Manfreda zo Sicílie v bitke pri Benevente v roku 1266.
Počas Tretej ríše pomenovali Waffen-SS na počesť tejto rodiny tankovú divíziu SS Hohenstaufen.

nazývaná aj dynastia Stauferovcov,

Nemecká dynastia, ktorá vládla Svätej rímskej ríši v rokoch 1138 až 1208 a v rokoch 1212 až 1254. Zakladateľom tejto línie bol gróf Friedrich (zomrel 1105), ktorý postavil hrad Staufen v pohorí Švábska Jura a bol odmenený za vernosť cisárovi Heinrichovi. IV. (1050-1106) vymenovaním švábskeho vojvodu za Fridricha I. v roku 1079. Neskôr sa oženil s Heinrichovou dcérou Agnes. Jeho dvaja synovia, Friedrich II., Švábsky vojvoda a Konrad, boli dedičmi ich strýka, cisára Heinricha V. (1086-1125), ktorý zomrel bezdetný v roku 1125. Po dočasnej vláde saského Lothaira III. (1075-1137), Konrad sa stal nemeckým kráľom a cisárom Svätej ríše rímskej ako Konrad III. (1093-1152) v roku 1138. Následnými hohenstaufenskými vládcami boli Friedrich I. Barbarossa (1123-1190) (cisár Svätej ríše rímskej 1155? 90), Heinrich VI. (1165-1197) (cisár Svätej ríše rímskej 1191? 97), Filip Švábsky (kráľ 1198? 1208), Friedrich II. (1194-1250) (kráľ, 1212? 50, cisár 1220? 50), a Konrád IV. (Kráľ 1237? 54). Hohenstaufenovci, zvlášť Friedrich I. a Friedrich II., Pokračovali v boji s pápežstvom, ktorý sa začal za ich sálskych predchodcov, a boli aktívni v talianskych záležitostiach.

Posledná cisárovná cisárskej dynastie Avril von Hohenstaufen Burey Anjou Plantagenet je H.I.R.H. Princezná Yasmine Aprile von Hohenstaufen Puoti (1946 Chateau Princes Puoti Palais Puoti- Villa di Briano)

Copyright © 1994-2002 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

Zdroje Encylopedia Britannica 2002, Expanded ion DVD

Figli di Federico II. Vyd. Isabella d'Inghilterra, Margareth, Carlotto
Enrico, Federico, milý. (Die Zeit der Staufer-Stuttgart Museum)


Svätí rímski cisári

Priame atesty erbov sú k dispozícii v 13. storočí. Starším cisárom sa v zdrojoch z 13. storočia pripisujú zbrane. Otto IV teda dostáva prvé známe zobrazenie dvojhlavého Reichsadler v Chronica Majora (asi 1250). Henrich VI. Dostane (jednohlavý) Reichsadler v Codex Manesse (c. 1320).

Od vlády Alberta II. (Vládol 1438 - 39, nikdy nebol korunovaný za cisára) každý cisár niesol staré cisárske zbrane (Alebo orol zobrazoval sobolí zobáky a členité gulky) s predkožkou predstieranej osobnej rodinnej náruče. Toto sa preto javí ako čierny orol s štítkom na prsiach. Pred rokom 1438 používali cisári samostatný osobný a cisársky erb. Ramená vysokých úradov ríše boli nesené ako rozšírenie osobnej náruče držiteľa úradu.

Alebo traja levy prechádzajúci v bledom sobolí.

Alebo dva levy prechádzajúce sa v bledom sobolí.

Barry z desiatich argentínskych a azúrových, lev nekontrolovane gules korunovaný resp.

Fusilly ohybne argentová a azúrová.

Gules, lev nekontrolovateľne argent, fronta fourchée skrížená v saltire, ozbrojená, ochabnutá a korunovaná Or.

Štvrťročne I a IV gules leví bujný argent, front fourchée skrížený v saltire, ozbrojený, ochabnutý a korunovaný Or (pre Čechy) II a III barry po osem, gules a argent (pre Maďarsko).

Na palec, dexter gules a fess argent (pre Rakúsko) zlovestné ohyby šiestich Or a azure, bordure gules (pre francúzske vojvodstvo Burgundsko).

Štvrťročne: I a IV Grand-Quartly I a IV pra-Grand Quarterly 1 a 4 gules a three-towered castle Nebo murovaný sable and ajouré azure (for Kastilie), 2 and 3 argent a lev bujnejú purpure korunovaný Alebo malátny a ozbrojený gules ( pre Leon), ii za bledé, obratné za fess, na vrchole alebo štyri palety gules (pre Aragona), v základných gules kríž, saltire a orle reťazcov spojených dohromady Or a stredový bod vert (pre Navarre), zlovestný argent krížový potent a štyri krížiky alebo (pre Jeruzalem) nabodávanie barry z ôsmich gules a argent (pre Maďarsko), iii za bledé, dexter za fess, na vrchole alebo štyri palety s gulesmi (pre Aragona), v základných gulách kríž, saltire, a orle reťazcov spojených dohromady Alebo a stredový bod vert (pre Navarre), zlovestný na saltire, 1 a 4 Alebo štyri palety gules, 2 a 3 argent orol zobrazený sable (pre Sicíliu) II a III grand-štvrťročne, i gules fess argent (pre Rakúsko), ii azure semy-de-lis Alebo bordure compony argent and gules (nové Burgundsko), iii bendy of six Alebo d azure a bordure gules (old Burgundsko), iv sable a lev nekontrolovateľne Alebo sužovaný a ozbrojený gules (pre Brabant), celkovo vo fess bode štvrte inescutcheon Alebo lev nekontrolovateľne sable ozbrojený a hunged gules (pre Flanders) napichovanie argent orol vystavený gules, vyzbrojený, zobákovitý a ochabnutý Or (pre Tirolsko) enté en point argent granátové jablko správne naočkované gules, podopreté, vytvarované a skĺznuté vert (pre Granadu).

Štvrťroční, I a IV gules lev nekontrolovateľne argent, front fourchée skrížený v saltire, ozbrojený, ochabnutý a korunovaný Or (pre Čechy) II a III barry po osem, gules a argent (pre Maďarsko) celkovo a inescutcheon pre bledé, dexter gules a fess argent (pre Rakúsko), zlovestné ohyby šiestich Or a azúrových, bordúrové gules (pre Burgundsko).

  • 1576-1611 : Rudolf II. Habsburský (1552 † 1612), cisár
  • 1612-1619 : Mateja Habsburského (1557 † 1619), cisár
  • 1619-1637 : Ferdinand II. Habsburský (1578 † 1637), cisár

Štvrťročne gulujem leva bujného argentína, frontu fourchée prekríženú v saltire, ozbrojenú, ochabnutú a korunovanú Or (pre Čechy) II barry of osmi, gules and argent (pre Maďarsko) III za bledý, dexter gules a fess argent (pre Rakúsko ), zlovestný ohyb šiestich alebo azúrových, bordúrové gulky (pre Burgundsko) IV veľkoštvrťové i a iv gules trojvežový hrad Or (pre Kastíliu), ii a iii argent lev nekontrolovateľne čisto ozbrojený, ochabnutý a korunovaný Alebo (pre Leona).

Štvrťročne gulujem leva bujného argentína, frontu fourchée prekríženú v saltire, ozbrojenú, ochabnutú a korunovanú Or (pre Čechy) II barry po osem, gules a argent (pre Maďarsko) III grand-quarterly, i and iv gules a three- týčiaci sa hrad Or (pre Kastíliu), ii a iii argent lev nekontrolovateľne čisto ozbrojený, ochabnutý a korunovaný Or (pre Leon) IV za bledé, obratné ohnutie šiestich Or a azúrovo bordúrne gules (pre Burgundsko), zlovestné za fess, hlavný argent orol zobrazoval gulesov vyzbrojených, ochabnutých a zobákovitých Or (pre Tirolsko) a základňu alebo lev nekontrolovateľne sable, ozbrojených a ochabnutých gulesov (pre Flámsko) celkovo inescutcheon gules a fess argent (pre Rakúsko).

Štvrťročne som barry z ôsmich, gules a argent (pre Maďarsko) II gules a lev nekontrolovateľne argent, front fourchée skrížený v saltire, ozbrojený, ochabnutý a korunovaný Or (pre Čechy) III za bledý, dexter gules a fess argent (pre Rakúsko ), zlovestný ohyb šiestich Or a azúrový, bordúrové gules (pre Burgundsko) IV grand-quarterly i a iv gules a three-towered castle Or (for Kastilie), ii and iii argent a lev bujnejú purpure ozbrojený, ochabnutý a korunovaný Alebo (pre Leona).

Štvrťroční, I a IV gules lev nekontrolovateľne argent, front fourchée skrížený v saltire, ozbrojený, ochabnutý a korunovaný Or (pre Čechy) II a III barry po osem, gules a argent (pre Maďarsko) celkovo a inescutcheon pre bledé, dexter gules fess argent (pre Rakúsko), zlovestný ohyb šiestich alebo azúrový, bordúrny gules (pre Burgundsko).

Štvrťročne gulujem trojvežový hrad Or (pre Kastíliu) II barry z ôsmich, gules a argent (pre Maďarsko) III na bledý, dexter Alebo štyri palety gules (pre Aragónsko), zlovestný na saltire i a iv Alebo štyri palety gules , ii a iii argent orol zobrazuje sable (pre Sicíliu) IV na bledú, dexter gules a fess argent (pre Rakúsko), zlovestné ohyby šiestich Or a azúrovo bordúrové gules (pre Burgundsko) celkovo inescutcheon gules a lev nekontrolovateľne argent, front fourchée prešiel v saltire, vyzbrojený, ochabnutý a korunovaný Or (pre Čechy).

Štvrťročné, I a IV fusilly bendwise argent and azure (for Bavaria) II and III sable a lev nekontrolované Svätej ríše rímskej).

Štvrťročne som zabalil osem gulesov a argent (pre Maďarsko) na nabodávanie azúrovej semy-de-lis Alebo štítok gules (pre Neapol) II argent krížový silný a štyri crosslets Or (pre Jeruzalem) napichovanie alebo štyri palety gules (pre Aragónsko) III azúrová semy-de-lis Alebo bordúrová gules (pre dom Valois-Anjou) nabodávajúca azúrovo leva zlovestného nekontrolovateľného alebo, ozbrojených, ochabnutých a korunovaných gulesov (pre Guelders) IV Alebo leva nekontrolovateľne živých, ozbrojených a ochabnutých gulesov (pre Jülicha) nabodávanie azúrovo drvivých, dvoch barbelov nadýchaných alebo Or (pre Bara) celkovo inescutcheon alebo ohyb gules tri alerions argent (pre Lorraine) nabodnutie alebo v annulo šesť torteaux, hlavná toreau nahradená rondelom azúrom nabitým s tromi fleurs-de-lis Or (pre rodinu Medici).

Štvrťročne som barry z ôsmich, gules a argent, nabodol gulesa patriarchálnym krížom argent na trimount vert (pre Maďarsko) II gules a lev nekontrolovateľne argent, front fourchée prešiel v saltire, ozbrojený, ochabnutý a korunovaný Or (pre Čechy) III ohýbanie šiestich Or a azúrové, bordúrové gules (pre Burgundsko) IV Alebo, v annulo six torteaux, hlavná toreau nahradená rondelovým azúrom nabitým tromi fleurs-de-lis Or (pre rodinu Medici) celkovo a inescutcheon gules fess argent (pre Rakúsko) nabodnutím na koleno alebo ohyb gules troch alerions argent (pre Lorraine).

  • 1790-1792 : Leopold II. Habsbursko-Lotrinský (1747 † 1792), český a uhorský kráľ, cisár
  • 1792-1804 : František II. Habsbursko-Lotrinský (1768 † 1835), český a uhorský kráľ, nemecký cisár, rakúsky cisár

Štvrťročne som barry z ôsmich, gules a argent, nabodnutím gulesa patriarchálnym krížom argent na troj Mount vert (pre Maďarsko) II gules a lev nekontrolovateľne argent, front fourchée skrížený v saltire, ozbrojený, ochabnutý a korunovaný Or (pre Čechy ) III ohýbanie zo šiestich Or a azúrové, bordúrové gules (pre Burgundsko) IV azúrovo crusilly fitchy, dva barbely haurient addored Or (pre Bar) celkovo inescutcheon per pale, dexter Alebo a bend gules three alerions argent (for Lorraine), sinister Alebo, v annulo šesť torteaux, nahradil hlavný torteau rondelový azúr nabitý tromi fleurs-de-lis Or (pre rodinu Medici), celkovo na bledých gules a fess argent (pre Rakúsko).


Kuriózni kurfirstia

Vysoké kancelárie (Reichserzämter)

Gules, vlastná koruna Karola Veľkého.

Fess sable and argent, dva meče v saltire gules.

Voliči

Gules, lev nekontrolovateľne argent, fronta fourchée skrížená v saltire, ozbrojená, ochabnutá a korunovaná Or.

Argent orol vystavil gulesa korunovaného Or.

Gules, koleso so šiestimi lúčmi, argent.

  • Pred rokom 1214: Sable lev bujný Alebo korunované gules.
  • Po roku 1214: Štvrťročné, I a IV fusilly bendwise argent a azúrové (pre Bavorsko) II a III sable a lev nekontrolovateľné Or, ozbrojené, ochabnuté a korunované gules.

Barry sable a Or, crancelin vert.

Ostatní členovia

Štvrťročne I. Gules, tri levy, strážca Argent II. Argent, statný jelen Gules III. Argent, lev nekontrolovateľne zlovestný Gules IV.  Gules, griffin nekontrolovateľne mečom Argent.


Rozhodnutie v Nemecku

Keď v roku 1125 posledný mužský rod z rodu Salianovcov, cisár Henrich V., zomrel bez dedičov, začala sa kontroverzia ohľadom nástupníctva. Vojvoda Frederick II. A Conrad, dvaja súčasní Stauferi, ich matky Agnes boli vnukmi zosnulého cisára Henricha IV. A synovcami Henricha V. Frederick sa pokúsil uspieť na tróne cisára Svätej ríše rímskej (formálne známy ako rímsky kráľ) ) prostredníctvom obvyklých volieb, ale prehral so saským vojvodom Lothairom zo Supplinburgu. Občianska vojna medzi Frederickovou dynastiou a Lothairovou sa skončila Frederickovým podriadením v roku 1134. Po Lothairovej smrti v roku 1137 bol Frederickov brat Conrad zvolený za kráľa za Konráda III.

Pretože welfský vojvoda hrdý Henrich, zať a dedič Lothaira a najmocnejšieho kniežaťa v Nemecku, ktorí boli vo voľbách prechádzajúci, odmietol uznať nového kráľa, Konrád III. Ho pripravil o všetky územia, odovzdanie saského vojvodstva Albertovi Medveďovi a bavorského vojvodovi Rakúskemu markgrófovi Leopoldovi IV. V roku 1147 Conrad vypočul Bernarda z Clairvaux, ako káže druhú križiacku výpravu v Speyeri, a súhlasil, že sa pripojí k francúzskemu kráľovi Ľudovítovi VII. Na veľkej expedícii do Svätej zeme, ktorá zlyhala.

Conradov brat vojvoda Frederick II. Zomrel v roku 1147 a vo Švábsku ho nahradil jeho syn vojvoda Frederick III. Keď v roku 1152 zomrel kráľ Konrád III. Bez dospelého dediča, nastúpil po ňom aj Frederick, ktorý získal nemecké kráľovské aj cisárske tituly.

Frederick Barbarossa

Frederick III a I, známy ako Frederick Barbarossa kvôli červeným bradám, sa po celú dobu svojej vlády usilovne snažil obnoviť silu a prestíž nemeckej monarchie proti vojvodom, ktorých moc rástla pred aj po skončení Investitívnej kontroverzie za jeho predchodcov zo Salia. Keďže kráľovský prístup k zdrojom cirkvi v Nemecku bol značne obmedzený, bol Frederick nútený odísť do Talianska, aby našiel financie potrebné na obnovenie kráľovskej moci v Nemecku. Onedlho bol v Taliansku korunovaný za cisára, ale desaťročia trvajúca vojna na polostrove priniesla chabé výsledky. Pápežstvo a prosperujúce mestské štáty Lombardskej ligy v severnom Taliansku boli tradičnými nepriateľmi, ale strach z cisárskej nadvlády spôsobil, že sa pripojili k boju proti Fridrichovi. Pod skúseným vedením pápeža Alexandra III. Utrpela aliancia mnoho porážok, ale nakoniec dokázala cisárovi popriať úplné víťazstvo v Taliansku. Frederick sa vrátil do Nemecka. V roku 1180 porazil jedného pozoruhodného protivníka, jeho bratranca Welfa, vojvodu Jindřicha Leva Saského a Bavorska, ale jeho nádeje na obnovenie moci a prestíže monarchie sa do konca života pravdepodobne nesplnili.

Počas Frederickových dlhých pobytov v Taliansku nemecké kniežatá zosilneli a začali úspešnú kolonizáciu slovanských krajín. Ponuky znížených daní a panských povinností lákali mnoho Nemcov, aby sa v priebehu roka usadili na východe Ostsiedlung . V roku 1163 Frederick uskutočnil úspešnú kampaň proti Poľskému kráľovstvu, aby znova dosadil sliezskych vojvodcov z dynastie Piastovcov. S nemeckou kolonizáciou ríša rástla a začala zahŕňať Pomoranské vojvodstvo, Čechy a Pochod Moravy. [ pochybný - diskutovať ] Rýchlejší hospodársky život v Nemecku zvýšil počet miest a cisárskych miest a zvýšil ich význam. V tomto období tiež hrady a dvory nahradili kláštory ako centrá kultúry. Stredná nemecká literatúra vyrastala z tejto dvorskej kultúry a dosiahla vrchol v lyrickej ľúbostnej poézii, minnesangu a naratívnych epických básňach, ako napr. Tristan, Parzivala Nibelungenlied.

Henrich VI

Frederick zomrel v roku 1190 počas tretej krížovej výpravy a jeho nástupcom sa stal jeho syn Henrich VI. Zvolen, kráľ ešte pred smrťou svojho otca, odišiel do Ríma, aby bol korunovaný za cisára. Oženil sa so sicílskou kráľovnou Konštanciou a smrť v rodine jeho manželky v roku 1194 mu dala do vlastníctva Sicílske kráľovstvo, zdroj obrovského bohatstva. Jindřichovi sa nepodarilo dedičstvo kráľovskej a cisárskej postupnosti, ale v roku 1196 sa mu podarilo získať prísľub, že jeho malý syn Frederick dostane nemeckú korunu. Tvárou v tvár ťažkostiam v Taliansku a presvedčený, že neskôr splní svoje priania v Nemecku, sa Henry vrátil na juh, kde sa ukázalo, že by mohol zjednotiť polostrov pod menom Hohenstaufen. Po sérii vojenských víťazstiev však ochorel a zomrel prirodzenou smrťou na Sicílii v roku 1197. Jeho neplnoletý syn Frederick ho mohol uspieť iba na Sicílii a na Malte, zatiaľ čo v impériu boj medzi Staufenovým a Domom Welf opäť vybuchol.

Filip Švábsky

Pretože zvolenie trojročného chlapca za nemeckého kráľa zrejme skomplikovalo usporiadané vládnutie, bol namiesto neho určený chlapcov strýko, vojvoda Filip zo Švábska, brat zosnulého Henricha VI. Iné frakcie však uprednostnili kandidáta Welf. V roku 1198 boli vybraní dvaja súperiaci králi: Hohenstaufen Philip zo Švábska a syn zbaveného vojvodu Jindřicha leva, Welf Otto IV. Začala sa dlhá občianska vojna, Filip sa chystal zvíťaziť, keď ho v roku 1208 zavraždil bavorský grófsky palatín Otto VIII. Z Wittelsbachu. Pápež Inocent III. Pôvodne podporoval Welfovcov, ale keď sa Otto, teraz jediný zvolený monarcha, presťahoval na príslušnú Sicíliu, Nevinný zmenil stranu a prijal mladého Fridricha II. a jeho spojenca, francúzskeho kráľa Filipa II., ktorý v bitke pri Bouvines 1214 porazil Ota. Frederick sa vrátil do Nemecka v roku 1212 zo Sicílie, kde vyrastal, a bol zvolený za kráľa v roku 1215. Keď Otto v roku 1218 zomrel, Fredrick sa stal nesporným vládcom a v roku 1220 bol korunovaný za svätého rímskeho cisára.


Heraldický lev. Hrebeň Corrado Caputo z Antiochie. Florencia. Taliansko.

(Napriek tomu, že prezident Rodinnej asociácie Caputo pochádza zo starodávnej línie, netvrdí, že by bol kráľovský, kniežací alebo vévodský voči tomu, čo by sa mohlo objaviť na niektorých webových stránkach, a ani sa tak netvári, ani o tom netvrdí. Táto rodina patrí do rodiny, ktorej pôvod je a predkovia sú dobre zdokumentovaní. Vložiť do biografie, že osoba má vznešený titul, neznamená to, že bude uznaná ako taká, ani nebude uznaná za monarchiu).

Najmä pokiaľ ide o príbeh, nechcel by som spadnúť do tej neresti alebo prísnosti zveličovania dôležitosti tejto štúdie s osobitným očakávaním. Preto nebudem dodržiavať toto príslovie, že história nie je veľkým učiteľom verejného života ľudí a národov, ale najväčším učiteľom oboch je bezpochyby táto prax. Ale tam, kde chýbajú osvedčené postupy, je história aj najlepšou pomocou a najlepším základom, ktorý môže národná politika mať.

Venoval som veľkú pozornosť overovaniu chronologických dokumentov a miest spisovateľov s dočasnými dátumami. Pri celej svojej práci som sa obrátil na tých najdôveryhodnejších autorov, ktorým som vložil články získané z najnovších vylepšení dejín vlasti a ktoré som údajne ilustroval na niektorých častiach histórie našich kniežat s akýmikoľvek mojimi dohadmi alebo kritickými pozorovaniami.

Pokiaľ ide o historické alebo politické názory, dobre viem, či chcem alebo nie, budem kritizovaný, viac -menej umiernený, viac -menej zdvorilý, viac -menej presný, podľa povahy, vzdelania a štúdií každého z nich. posledný z nich bude určite užitočný pre vedcov našich dejín. Zdá sa však, že to nie je arogancia, ak dodám, že tieto kritiky, inými slovami, tieto vyjadrenia názorov ostatných, môžu len ťažko zmeniť moje.

Conradin Hohenstaufen, posledný zo Švábov a jeho tragický koniec, dojal spisovateľov a výtvarníkov všetkých období a jeho osobnosť bola vždy obklopená romantickou aurou. Básnik devätnásteho storočia Aleardo Aleardi o ňom napísal slávnu báseň s názvom Corradino di Svevia, ktorá ho charakterizovala ako štíhly, blonďavý pubertiak, pekný a romantický, ktorý písal poéziu a sníval o svojom kráľovstve Sicílie, tak odlišnom od chladné, daždivé Bavorsko. Sníval o milovanej slnečnej krajine naplnenej mandľovým kvetom a vôňou pomarančového kvetu, kde sa narodil jeho otec, strýko a starý otec. Nikdy sa mu však nepodarilo dostať na Sicíliu a 29. októbra 1268 v Neapole mu sťali hlavu iba v šestnástich rokoch.

Ale potomkovia Fridricha II. Našli viac ratolestí u nelegitímnych detí, ktoré tiež zaujímajú významné miesto v ich histórii, pretože ako náš cisár s osobnosťou, ktorá z neho robila takú veľkú osobnosť, vždy rovnako zaobchádzal aj s deťmi narodenými z manželstvo, aj keď ich formálne nemôžu zaradiť do úlohy dynastických dedičov jedného z nich Corrada Caputa z Antiochie, vnuka cisára ako syna Fridricha z Antiochie, jeho prirodzeného syna. Brázdu, ktorú postava zanechala vo vtedajšom pochode Ancony, ako menovaného cisárskym vikárom v roku 1261 na podporu Manfreda. (Manfreda porazil Charles d`Anj a zomrel vo februári 1266 v bitke pri Benevente).

Keď v roku 1256 zomrel jeho otec, Corrado sa ocitol ako gróf Albe, Celano a Loreto Aprutino a pán feudálnych panstiev na severe svahu pohoria Ruffi, Aniene a Marsicana ako Anticoli, Saracinesco, podložia Mola, Sambuci, pevnosť Sorci, pevnosť Murri a ďalšie miesta ako hrad Piglio.

Pasquale Ridola (1886) uvádza, že v októbri 1267 bol Corrado definitívne vo Verone, kde sa po prvý raz stretol so svojim bratrancom Conradinom z Ríma, od ktorého získal potvrdenie o majetku, ktorý už bol vo vlastníctve, s dodatkom titulu princ z Abruzza.

Pápež, ktorý sa obával, že Corrado prijme politiku proti cirkvi ako jeho otec, neinvestoval do krajín Sicílie, pričom uprednostnil rodinu Karola I. D`Anjoua, aby sa rodina ocitla bez majetku Filadelfo Mungnos Rodinné divadlo s rodnou rodinou na Sicílii Zväzok I pagina 69 (Rodopisné rodiny kráľovstva Sicílie, zväzok I strana 69).

V marci 1272 zomrel v Bologni Enzo, posledný žijúci syn Fridricha II. Enzo opustil závet grófstva Molise svojmu bratrancovi Corradovi, ktorého bol majiteľom. Bola to jasná indikácia poukazujúca na poslednú osobu, ktorá je ešte schopná zrekonštruovať vznešenosť Švábov.

Až do roku 1282 bol Corrado jedným z protagonistov politických manévrov, ktoré mali viesť k obsadeniu Sicílie Aragončanmi. Corrado spolu s Giovannim da Procidom opakovane vyzvali Petra aragónskeho pri dobytí ostrova. Sám Peter v októbri 1282 napísal Corrado v Messine, aby ho prinútil vtrhnúť na územia Abruzza: Pozvánka, ktorú prijal s nadšením.

Pápež Martin IV. Niekoľkokrát Corrada poslušne pripomína, ale bezvýsledne, a nakoniec, 23. novembra 1282, zahodil tretiu exkomunikáciu. Corrado sa spolu s ďalšími exulantmi pokúsil získať späť vlastníctvo hradov a pohraničných miest ako Petrella, Antrodoco, Mareri a Frontino, a to Karola z Anjou veľmi rozhnevalo. Corrado, exkomunikovaný pápežom a vyhľadávaný Angevinmi, sa stal v tej dobe akýmsi pirátom, takmer vždy skrytým, ale pripraveným organizovať prepady. Jeho úkrytom bola Rocca dei Sorci, mimo mesta Anticoli.

Antiochijský princ Corrado I., vnuk cisára Fridricha II., Bol na talianskej scéne druhej polovice trinásteho storočia vždy prítomný. Kým tieň? Veľkého? ako Manfred a Conradin je hlavným hrdinom svojej doby. Prežil holokaust partizána z Hohenstaufenu a na konci svojho života sa dokonca stal symbolom: živou spomienkou na švábsky vek a referenčným bodom, prinajmenšom ideálom všetkých talianskych Ghibellines. Jeho existencia je poznačená dobrodružným a feudálnym rytierom, pirátom, princom a gentlemanom, pretože štyrikrát utiekol z väzenia a trikrát bol exkomunikovaný. Je však schopný založiť dynastiu vo Val d? Aniene Anticoli Corrado, ktorý prijal jeho meno, je stále v pamäti a zomrel na starobu, zmierený s Cirkvou, ktorej ponúkol dvoch synov arcibiskupov.

V tom období veľkej neistoty je pravdepodobné, že sa Corrado rozhodol obstáť a spomaliť trend politických udalostí a odišiel do dôchodku. Nesmieme tiež zabudnúť ani podceniť výraz pápeža ctihodného IV., Ktorý v roku 1286 nazval „Corrado, milovaný syn Cirkvi". Podľa neskoršieho dokumentu by sa však zdalo, že Corrado bol nútený vyrovnať sa s pápežom potom, čo väčšinu jeho lén dobyli späť sily cirkvi. Na potvrdenie mieru, ktorý nastal so Svätou stolicou, je sobáš jednej z jeho dcér Beatrice s Ottavianom Brunforteom vymenoval pápežského vikára v roku 1297 (Annals of Todi, by Petti) pápež Bonifác VIII.

Corrado pozná porážky a víťazstvá. Vždy lojálny a vášnivý podporovateľ cisárskeho domu Hohenstaufen. Corrado z Antiochie je vzácnym príkladom dôsledne vysvetľovaného aj vo svetle detstva a dospievania stráveného v priamom kontakte s tým svetom Ghibelline, v ktorom už pre pokrvné putá zaujímalo dôležité miesto. Zdá sa, že väzby na tieto búrlivé udalosti vo svojej dobe posilňujú vytváranie nití jeho existencie.

Svoje dni prežil v meste Anticoli Corrado (pomenované podľa jeho mena), kde ešte žil v roku 1320. Po jeho smrti sa potomstvo Corrada rozdelilo na dve vetvy: jedna zostala v Laziu (Anticoli, Piglio) a druhá sa presťahovala na Sicíliu v grófstve Capizzi, na ústupok od Petra Aragónskeho, línia zanikla v štrnástom storočí, zatiaľ čo Anticoli prežila o storočie dlhšie

RODINA CORRADO CAPUTO ANTIOCH pochádza z dvoch dynastií, jednej z normanskej Sicílie z Altavilly (Hautville a druhej z rodu Hohenstaufen. Cisár Svätej ríše rímskej bol voliteľným úradom, ale dynastická politika ho urobila skutočne dedičným, najskôr s Hohenstaufenom. .

Rodina z Hauteville (Francúzsky: Maison de Hauteville, Taliansko: Casa d'Altavilla, Sicílsky: Casa d'Autavilla) bola drobná barónska normanská rodina z Cotentinu, ktorá sa preslávila v Európe, Ázii a Afrike svojimi výbojmi v Stredomorí, najmä v južnom Taliansku a na Sicílii. Zúčastňujú sa tiež na normanskom dobytí Anglicka.

Rodinný pôvod má korene od nórskych Vikingov (Norsemen), ktorí sa usadili v Normandii v 10. storočí. Z ktorej dediny Hauteville, ktorá môže jednoducho znamenať „vysoké mesto“, rodina čerpala svoj názov, je ťažké s istotou identifikovať, aj keď moderné štipendium uprednostňuje Hauteville-la-Guichard.

Normanské dobytie južného Talianska prebiehalo na konci jedenásteho a veľkej časti dvanásteho storočia a zahŕňalo mnoho bitiek a mnoho nezávislých hráčov, ktorí dobyli svoje vlastné územia. Až neskôr boli tieto zjednotené ako sicílske kráľovstvo, ktoré zahŕňalo nielen ostrov Sicília, ale aj celú južnú tretinu talianskeho polostrova, ako aj súostrovie Malta a časti severnej Afriky.

Rodina Hohenstaufen - Nemecký kniežací rod, ktorého meno je odvodené od hradu Staufen, postaveného v roku 1077 švábskym grófom Fridrichom. V roku 1079 sa Frederick oženil s Agnes, dcérou cisára Svätej ríše rímskej, Henricha IV., A bol vytvorený ako švábske vojvodstvo. Línia nemeckých kráľov a cisárov Svätej ríše rímskej sa začala v roku 1138 Fridrichovým synom Konrádom III., Ktorého nástupcom boli Fridrich I., Henrich VI. A Filip Švábsky. Ich hlavnými súpermi boli Guelphovci, ktorých potomok Otto IV. Bol cisárom Svätej ríše rímskej v rokoch 1209 až 1215, ale dediča Hohenstaufena, Fridricha II., Zvolila súperiaca strana za kráľa v roku 1212. Najpozoruhodnejší predstaviteľ domu, Fridrich, sa presťahoval centrum rodinných záujmov na Sicílii a južnom Taliansku.

C orrado C aputo z A ntioch

Antiochijský princ z domu Hohenstaufen. Generálny vikár pre ostrov Sicília, vnuk Fridricha II. Knieža z Abruzza (1267), vojvoda zo Spoleta, gróf z Alby, Celano (1258), Laureto a Abruzzo (1267), gróf z Loreta (1285). Barón z Anticoli, Saracinesco, Rocca dei Surici, Rocca di Muzzi a Sambuci.

Antiochijské kniežatstvo zahŕňalo časť Turecka a Sýrie a bolo jedným zo štátov vytvorených počas prvého križiackeho vojska. Kniežatstvo bolo oveľa menšie ako Edessa a Jeruzalem. Rozširovala sa okolo severovýchodného okraja Stredozemného mora, v závislosti od dátumu hraničila s Tripolským krajom na juhu, Edessou na východe a Byzantskou ríšou alebo Arménskym kráľovstvom na severozápade. V 12. storočí pravdepodobne malo asi 20 000 obyvateľov, z ktorých väčšinu tvorili Arméni a gréckokatolícki kresťania, pričom niekoľko moslimov bolo mimo mesta. Väčšina križiakov, ktorí sa tam usadili, bola normanského pôvodu a/alebo z južného Talianska, ako aj prví vládcovia kniežatstva, ktorí sa obklopili svojimi lojálnymi poddanými. Okrem križiakov, ktorí založili kniežatstvo, bolo niekoľko rímskokatolíkov, aj keď sa mesto v roku 1100 zmenilo na latinský patriarchát.

Corrado Caputo z Antiochie, narodený v rokoch 1240 až 1241. Presný dátum narodenia nepoznáme a formulujeme hypotézy týkajúce sa života jeho otca Federica (Fredericka) z Antiochie a jeho rodinných záležitostí. Dokument, v ktorom je Frederick z Antiochie ženatý 10. februára 1240, je list, ktorý cisár Frederick II., Jeho otec, napísal Giovannimu Raimovi, správcovi hradov Abruzzo, aby zaistil obživu svojho syna Federica z Antiochia a jeho manželky Margherity Lancia, dcéry Galvana Lanciu, princa zo Salerna, ktorý bol zvolený za veľkého maršala vlády.


Pôvod

Označenia Guelphs a Ghibellines pochádzajú z 12. storočie z mien konkurenčných nemeckých domov v ich boji o titul Rímsky cisár. Voľba Lothaira II (asi 1070–1137), nemeckého kráľa z roku 1125 a cisára Svätej ríše rímskej z roku 1133, bol pápežom favorizovaný a proti nemu sa postavil kniežací rod Hohenstaufen.
Toto bol začiatok sporu medzi dom blaha (Guelph), nasledovníci vojvodov Saska a Bavorska, a domu páni z Hohenstaufenu, ktorého hrad vo Waiblingene (neďaleko dnešného Stuttgartu) prepožičal Ghibellines svoje meno.

Nakoniec konflikt medzi Guelphom a Ghibellinom ustúpil a občianska vojna to bolo definitívne urovnané v roku 1152 zvolením Fridricha I. (Barbarossa), syna otca Hohenstaufena a matky Welfa (Keď Henry Lev, Welf, spôsobil nemilosť svätého rímskeho cisára Fredericka Barbarossu, Waiblingena, v r. 1180, jeho pozemky prepadli vojvodovi z rodu Wittelsbachovcov, dynastie, ktorá mala dominovať bavorským dejinám do konca 1. svetovej vojny).


Symboly ríše

Orol a včela, emblémy Prvej a neskoršej Druhej ríše, sa stali tak známymi, že je ľahké zabudnúť na ich pôvod a význam.

Vytvorenie erbu

Proclaimed Emperor of the French on 28 Floréal, An XII (18 May, 1804), Napoleon approached the problem of the emblems of sovereignty on 23 Prairial (12 juin) during a session of the Conseil d’Etat. The choice of the new symbols so as to make a clean break with the monarchy of the Ancien Régime proved difficult. Crétet proposed successively an eagle, a lion and an elephant. Cambacérès preferred bees since France was a republic with a head, like a hive Ségur thought that a lion would be better, stronger than the English leopard Laumond was for the elephant, ” the strongest of animals “ Duroc preferred the oak and Lebrun the fleur de lys, which he felt was the emblem of France and not the Bourbons. The Conseil d’Etat finally went for the cockerel, but Napoleon preferred the lion. However, on 21 Messidor, An XII (10 July, 1804), the emperor crossed out the lion from the decree instituting his seal and coat of arms and imposed the eagle. Developed by Denon, Gay and Biennais, the ‘armes de l’Empire’ (Empire coat of arms), taking their inspiration from both Ancient Rome and Charlemagne, were re-used largely unchanged by the Second Empire.
The coat of arms comprises the following elements:

Orol
he principal element of the new shield, this symbol of imperial Rome, Jupiter’s bird, was associated from the earliest antiquity with military victory. The decree of 10 July, 1804 stipulates that the coat of arms of the emperor should be: ” d’azur à l’aigle à l’antique d’or, empiétant un foudre du même ” (azure with a gold, ancient eagle clutching a thunderbolt of the same colour). This eagle, very different from the motifs of traditional heraldry, also took elements from the Carolingian eagle. The day after the coronation, Napoleon had an eagle placed at the top of the shaft of every flag in the Napoleonic army.

The Bee
Symbol of immortality and resurrection, the bee was chosen so as to link the new dynasty to the very origins of France. Golden bees (in fact, cicadas) were discovered in 1653 in Tournai in the tomb of Childeric I, founder in 457 of the Merovingian dynasty and father of Clovis. They were considered as the oldest emblem of the sovereigns of France.

The chain of the Légion d’honneur
Created on 29 Floréal, An X (19 May, 1802) as a decoration for military and civil services, the Légion d’honneur took its name from ancient Rome. The chain of the Légion d’honneur, reserved for the emperor, princes of the imperial family and grand dignitaries, is composed of a gold chain made of 16 trophies linked by eagles with the ribbon and cross of the order at their necks. This chain is bordered on either side by a small chain alternating stars and bees. The central motif, the Napoleonic N, is encircled by a laurel wreath and supports the cross of the Légion d’honneur, a five-pointed pommel-pointed star, in white enamel. In the centre is the laurel-crowned profile of the emperor, the whole surmounted by the imperial crown.

The Hand of Justice and the Sceptre
Both ” Honneurs ” of Charlemagne and re-used for the coronation of 2 December, 1804, the hand and sceptre appear (crossed) on the imperial coat of arms. The sceptre, the baton of command, sign of sovereign authority, is that of Charlemagne and at the end is mounted a statuette of the first Emperor of the West. The reconstituted Hand of Justice is a stick mounted with a ivory hand which gives a benediction.

The Crown and the Imperial Mantle
The escutcheon stands out from the imperial cape which is similar to that used by the peers of France. Scarlet velvet spread with bees, and bordered with grape clusters, gold fringes, the cape is lined with ermine and is held in place by the crown made of eagles with raised wings alternating with arcs, the whole topped with a globe bearing a cross.


History of Germany and its German Heritage

At various times in Roman history the Romans were concerned with different German tribes, and by the beginning of the Christian era, Roman dominion had been firmly established in Germany. In 9 A.D., however, when Emperor Augustus attempted to force Roman customs upon the German people, they rebelled under the leadership of Arminius and completely destroyed the Roman armies under General Varus. Never again did the Romans establish themselves in Germany, and in the early centuries of the Christina era they were often forced to defend themselves against the invasion of powerful German tribes. It is interesting to note that the Germans in reference to themselves did not use the name Germani the Romans from a Gallic word probably formed it.

The roman historian Tacitus, writing about A.D. 100, gives in his Germania a valuable and interesting account of the customs and lives of the early Germans. Although they were all of German blood, speaking a common language and living under identical institutions, they were divided into many tribes. The early tribal names mentioned by the Romans have little historical significance the better-known groupings of later times were confederations of tribes, such as the Alemanni, Franks, Vandals, Burgundians, Angles, Saxons, Lombards, and Goths. The Germans lived in a land of fen and forest, dwelling in small villages of wattled huts and practicing a rude form of agriculture. Most of the people were free peasants, but above them was the class of nobles and below ere the serfs and the slaves. A rudimentary form of representation prevailed in the village council and in the county assembly and court in time of war the assembled tribesmen chose their military chieftain. During the later years of the Roman Empire the tribes bordering on the frontier became civilized and Christianized. To a considerable degree these Germans also became romanized, learning and adopting Roman building and farming methods and copying in many instances the Roman way of life.

The Wanderings of the German Nations: Late in the second century A.D., furious warfare among the German tribes led to increasing pressure on the Roman frontier. Many thousands of German colonists entered the empire, and great numbers of the barbaric tribesmen took service in the Roman legions, some rising to posts of command. Germans and Romans also intermarried, and the cultures of the two peoples were intermingled.

This peaceful penetration ended with the invasion of Europe by the Asiatic Huns about 375. The Visigoths , driven from their homes by the invaders, gained permission from Rome to settle south of the Danube then followed in 378 the Battle of Adrianople in which the refugees defeated and killed the Roman emperor Valens. Later the Visigoths under Alaric invaded Italy, and in 410 they captured Rome. Eventually, the Visigoths settled in Spain and southern France. The Romans were no longer able to hold back the barbarians, who quickly swept over the doomed empire. The Vandals wandered into North Africa the Burgundians slipped into southeastern Gaul Angles, Jutes, and Saxons crossed the sea into Britain the Ostrogoths conquered Italy as well as the upper Danube region the Franks spread out into northwestern Gaul and, in 568, the Lombards subjugated northern Italy.

The Roman Empire had lived on, after the fall of Rome in 476, with its capital at Constantinople but west of the Balkans its territory was occupied by the several German kingdoms, which were virtually independent. Eventually these Germans merged with their subject peoples, becoming Italians, Spaniards, French, and English, and their history became the history of their new homelands. In general, Roman culture gave way to German culture, bringing the Dark Ages to Europe. Farming, trade, political organization, and urban society declined, as a relatively primitive civilization replaced one that was more advanced. Even generations removed from barbarian tribal life, and, although Roman influences did not die, the more backward order prevailed.

Empire under the Franks: While the other Germans migrated, the Franks merely expanded from their old homeland into northwestern Gaul, which they invaded in 481. By 486 the ambitious Frankish chief Clovis had defeated the Romans in Gaul and had set up his court in the old city of Paris. The Frankish kingdom expanded in all directions, conquering the Burgundians, Alemanni, Thuringians, and Bavarians and ending Visigoth power in southern Gaul. From the time of Clovis to the Treaty of Verdun in 843 the history of Germany is identical with that of France.

After the death in 814, of Charlemagne his great empire disintegrated. The Treaty of Verdum divided the empire among the three sons of Louis the Pious, Charlemagne's son and successor. The western kingdom grew into modern France and the middle kingdom, including modern Netherlands, Belgium, Luxemburg, Alsace-Lorraine, northern Italy, and part of Switzerland, became a battleground and a buffer state. The eastern kingdom, which developed into modern Germany, went to Louis the German, the son of Louis the Pious. Louis reigned until 876 and made some advancement toward national unity. The son of Louis, Charles the Fat, succeeded for a time in reuniting the three kingdoms - France, Italy, and Germany, but as he was unable to defend his empire against the Northmen the nobles deposed him and elected his nephew, Arnulf, in his stead <887>.

Roman Empire and German Feudalism: On the death of Louis the Child, the last of the Carolingian dynasty , the kingship became elective. The first king, Conrad I <911-18>, Duke of Franconia, could neither unite feudal Germany nor defend it from the attack of the Magyars of Hungary. The most powerful of the nobles, Henry of Saxony, succeeded Conrad in 919 as Henry I , first of the Saxon line and considered to be the creator of the German Empire he united the dukedoms under his rule, built fortresses, reformed the military system, defeated the Hungarians, and instituted many internal reforms. The royal power was greatly increased under his son and successor, Otto I <936 -73>, who was surnamed the Great. Otto restricted the power of the nobles, making himself complete master in his own kingdom he defeated the Hungarians on the Lech in 955 in 961 he acquired the crown of the Lombards, thus imposing his dominion over Italy and in 962 he was crowned emperor in Rome by Pope John XII, thus founding the Holy Roman Empire, which existed until 1806.

The political consequences of the intimate union of Church and Sate which was thus established were unfortunate for Germany in pursuing the pretension of world dominion, in attempting to subjugate rebellious Italy, and in carrying on the long struggle between Church and State, the emperors dissipated their power and lost control of Germany, which became increasingly feudal as the other nations of western Europe became centralized states.

When the Saxon dynasty became extinct in 1024, the election fell on the Duke of Franconia, who reigned as Conrad II <1024 - 39>, founding the Franconian, or Salian, dynasty, which continued in power until 1125. The early monarchs of this line were strong rulers in Germany they held their own against the feudal lords, and in Italy they dominated the Papacy.

Empire against the Papacy. The struggle between emperor and pope was base on the papal theory that, since the pope held supremacy over the Church and the Church held supremacy over the State, all rulers should be the pope's vassals. The emperor, on the other hand, maintained that the nobles who elected him conferred his authority upon him and that he should control Episcopal appointments in his realm. In 1076 Pope Gregory VII stirred up a revolt in Saxony in order to break the power of Henry IV <1056 - 1106>and in 1077 he forced the Emperor, in order to preserve his throne, to present himself as a penitent before the Pope at Canossa. The continuing State-Church controversy led to renew civil war in Germany, and Henry himself died a fugitive in his own land. He was succeeded by his son, Henry V <1106 - 25>, the last king of the Franconian line.

Finally, during the reign of Henry V, a compromise settlement of the controversy was reached in the Concordat of Worms <1122>. This concordat decreed that henceforth the pope or his legate should have the right to fill bishops' and abbots' sees in the presence of the emperor or his representative. The emperor, however, retained the right to invest a bishop or abbot with the regalia of his office, and the symbols of temporal authority were to be bestowed before those of spiritual authority.

Hohenstaufens and the Holy Roman Empire: When Henry died in 1125, the papal party prevented the election of Frederick of Swabia of the House of Hohenstaufen, the nearest heir of the Franconian line, and the throne went instead to Lothair, Duke of Saxony, who reigned until 1137 as Lothair II. Frederick and his brother Conrad, nephews of Henry, revolted, but were put down by the new emperor. Then in 1138 Conrad, Duke of Swabia, ascended the throne as Conrad III and founded the Hohenstaufen dynasty. Lothair III's son-in-law, Henry the Proud, of the House of Welf, Duke of both Bavaria and Saxony, opposed him. Out of their conflict grew the factions known as the Welfs and the Waiblingers the Welfs supported the Papacy in its struggle with the imperial authority, while the Waiblingers upheld Conrad in his great struggle with the pope. When the contest was carried into Italy, the German names of the rival political groups were corrupted into Guelph and Ghibellines.

Conrad III died in 1152, after taking part in the Second Crusade, and was succeeded, on his own recommendation, by his nephew Frederick, Duke of Swabia, who reigned as Frederick I, or Frederick Barbarossa . When Pope Eugene III crowned him in 1155 he added the word "holy" to the name of the empire, making it the Holy Roman Empire, the name by which it was thereafter known. His ambition to become another Augustus in a great empire comprising all Christendom brought him into bitter conflict with the Papacy and with northern Italy, where the commercial classes of the rising towns formed the Lombard League to protect their liberties. Frederick led six expeditions into Italy, but eventually had to recognize the rights of the Lombard cities. In Germany he crushed Henry the Lion of the House of Welf and broke up Henry's great duchies of Saxony and Bavaria. This partition, intended to weaken the great duchies by dividing them into a number of petty principalities which would by vassals of the emperor, strengthened Frederick's position at home, but it had a tragic effect on the nation: when he perished in the Third Crusade <1190>, Germany was split up into nearly three hundred principalities, lay and clerical.

Frederick Barbarossa was succeeded by his son, Henry VI <1190 - 97>, who by marriage and conquest added to his realm the Norman kingdom comprised of Sicily and southern Italy . Henry died suddenly, leaving an infant son, Frederick. Civil war then broke out in Germany between the rival claimants of the Welfs and the Hohenstaufens. Finally in 1212 the youthful Frederick was crowned King of the Romans in 1215 he was crowned emperor by Pope Honorius III. One of the most brilliant and remarkable rulers of the Middle Ages, Frederick II was little interested in Germany, which he visited only three times. His primary objective was to unite Italy and Sicily into a compact state this ambition brought him into conflict with the Lombard cities and with the Papacy. Frederick died in 1250 with the death four years later of his son, Conrad IV, the imperial line of the Hohenstaufens came to an end.

The period of the Hohenstaufens is filled with contentions with the popes and the Italian cities and with constant internal strife. The royal power became insignificant, and neither German king nor Roman emperor in reality existed. Some of the rulers seemed little concerned about Germany, dividing their time between Sicily and the Crusades, and Frederick II, one of the ablest of medieval rulers, was not in Germany for fifteen consecutive years.

The Rise of the Hapsburgs and its Heritage in Germany: The period between the death of Conrad IV in 1254 and the election of Rudolph of Hapsburg in 1273 is known as the Great Interregnum. The right to choose the emperor had been gradually usurped by a few of the powerful nobles, who were called electors, and on the extinction of the Hohenstaufen line these electors practically offered the crown for sale. Various bidders appeared, and the two offering the largest bribes, Richard of Cornwall and Alfonso of Castile, were elected, but neither of them was crowned emperor at Rome or acquired any real power.

Finally, in 1272, Pope Gregory X ordered a new election, and in the following year Rudolph I <1273 - 1291>, of the House of Hapsburg, was raised to the throne. He in a measure restored order and strengthened the royal authority. Through his defeat of Otttokar II of Bohemia he acquired lands in southeastern Germany. The most important of these was Austria, which his son Albert received with the title of duke and from this time dates the rise of Austria and the House of Hapsburg.

During the fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries the intellectual forces of the Renaissance were beginning to be felt in Germany, notably in the invention of movable type by Gutenberg at Mainz . However, there was but little of interest in the history of the country. The imperial crown was passed around from one house to another and was openly offered to the highest bidder, the only care of the electors being to choose a prince not strong enough to endanger their authority. At one time there were three rival emperors ruling simultaneously. The first noteworthy event was the promulgation in 1356 by Charles IV <1348 - 1378>of the Golden Bull, which secured to four secular and three ecclesiastical princes the right of election and defined their power. Another noteworthy event was the war of the Hussites.

In 1438 Albert II of Austria was elected emperor, and from this time until the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire the crown was regarded as hereditary in the Hapsburg family, although the electors always made a formal choice. Frederick III <1440 - 1493>, who succeeded Albert, was the last German emperor to be crowned by the pope. The greatest of the early Hapsburg emperors was Maximilian I <1493 - 1519>. His reign marked a strong tendency toward centralization and the material growth of imperial authority. Although he restored much of the former imperial glory, his war with the Swiss Confederacy in 1499 lost to the empire the last sections from which an independent Switzerland was formed.

The Period of Charles V in Germany: Maximilian was succeeded by his grandson, Charles V <1519 - 1556>. Besides Germany and Austria, the Hapsburgs now ruled a vast empire that included Bohemia, Moravia, Hungary, Transylvania, Italy, Sicily, Spain, Alsace, Lorraine, Burgundy, Luxemburg, and the Low Countries. Charles bestowed the Austria possessions of the House of Hapsburg on his brother Ferdinand, who may be said to have founded the monarchy of Austria-Hungary. In his reign came the sale of papal indulgences in Germany that touched off the Reformation, under the leadership of Martin Luther. The German peasants emboldened by the revolutionary mood of the Reformation, revolted unsuccessfully <1524 - 1525>against feudal oppression. The Peace of Augsburg <1555>, with which the struggle between the Catholics and the Protestants was for the time terminated, granted the Lutheran states the right to establish Protestant worship.

In 1555 Charles V abdicated he assigned Spain and the Netherlands to his son Philip II and turned over the empire and the Austrian lands to his brother, Ferdinand I. The Roman Catholics began a counter-reformation during the reign of Ferdinand <1556 - 1564>. While Matthias <1612 - 1619>was on the throne, his cousin Ferdinand was crowned king of Bohemia in 1617, and the attempt to force the Protestants of that country to accept him as their ruler led to the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War <1618 - 1648>. The struggle closed in the reign of Ferdinand III, by the Peace of Westphalia. Germany by this treaty was divided into over two hundred independent states, which owed only a nominal support to the emperor and became in fact simply petty monarchies. The imperial authority was completely wrecked and never afterward recovered. The war had devastated and impoverished Germany beyond measure, national feeling had been crushed, and all unity had been destroyed.

Rise of Prussia: The interest of German history after the Treaty of Westphalia centers largely in the rise of Prussia. The Great Elector, Frederick William of Brandenburg <1640 - 1688>, gained increased territory for his state, and by strengthening the royal authority and forming a standing army brought Prussia rapidly forward. His son, Frederick III <1688 - 1688>, added to his title of elector of Brandenburg, that of King of Prussia in 1701. Normally the King of Prussia was still subject to the emperor, but from this time on, the emperors were in fact merely rulers of Austria, and the imperial dignity was an empty honor. With the death of Charles VI <1711 - 1740>, the male Hapsburg line became extinct. The attempt of Charles by the Pragmatic Sanction to secure his dominions to his daughter Maria Theresa brought on the War of the Austrian Succession.

After a two years' interregnum, the electors chose Charles Vii of Bavaria as emperor <1742 - 1745>, and on his death Maria Theresa's husband, Francis I <1745 - 1765>, was elected. His successor, Joseph II <1765 - 1790>, tried to establish the imperial authority in southern Germany, but was prevented by Prussia. In 1756 war broke out between Maria Theresa and Frederick the Great of Prussia <1740 - 1786>. The advantage was decidedly with Frederick, and under this great ruler, whose statesmanship was as remarkable as his generalship Prussia became the equal of Austria and showed itself as the one possible center for a united Germany. The French Revolution destroyed the remnant of the empire, and after the formation by a number of German states in 1806 of the Confederation of the Rhine, under the protectorate of Napoleon, Francis II formally resigned the imperial crown and the Holy Roman Empire ceased to exist.

Confederation: Napoleon's plan to add Germany, or at least the states of the Confederation, to his empire was frustrated and at the Congress of Vienna, which met to restore order out of the chaos into which European affairs had been plunged, the German states were organized as a confederation, with the emperor of Austria as president in 1815. The various German states were independent in internal affairs, and interstate disputes were to be settled by a diet. East state was to have a constitutional form of government, but this provision was little observed until the revolutions of 1830 and 1848 forced the German rulers to accede to the demands of their subjects. In 1830 was formed the Zollverein, which secured free trade among the several states. In 1848 a national assembly met at Berlin for the purpose of framing a national constitution, but the rivalry of Austria and Prussia prevented any successful results, and the Prussian King, Frederick William IV, refused the title of Emperor of the Germans.

Frederick William IV was succeeded by William I <1861 - 1888>. The new king soon styled policy of "blood and iron" made possible the final firm union of the German nation. The rivalry between Prussia and Austria was encouraged by Bismarck, who was making ready for the struggle which he knew would come. The final cause of the outbreak was the contention over Schleswig-Holstein, which had been taken from Christian IX of Denmark. War began between Austria and Prussia in 1866. The outcome was complete success for Prussia, and in 1867 the North German Confederation was formed, with the King of Prussia as president. The Catholic states of the south, Bavaria, Baden, and Wurttemberg, held aloof, joining the Confederation just before the close of the Franco-Prussian War in 1871.

The Germany Empire: By the treaty, which followed the Prussian victories in the Franco-Prussian War of <1870 - 1871>, France lost Alsace and Lorraine and was compelled to pay a large indemnity. The most important result to Germany, however, was the enthusiasm and the spirit of nationality awakened by the Prussian success. The German Confederation was charged to the German Empire, and William I, King of Prussia, was proclaimed German emperor on January 18, 1871. The title, to be hereditary in his family, descended at his death in 1888 to his son Frederick III. The latter lived but a few months after his accession and was succeeded by his son, William II, or Kaiser Wilhelm <1888 - 1818>. William at once showed his intention to keep personal control of the government and accordingly in 1890 dismissed Bismarck, who did not approve of his policy.

About 1883 Bismarck had aided in the formation of the Triple Alliance, which included Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. Caprivi, his successor, renewed this in 1891. Under the chancellorship of Hohenlohe, who succeeded Caprivi in 1894, rapid progress was made in the extension of German dominion in Africa. Toward the close of the century, Germany acquired Northeast New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago, and the Caroline, Palau, and Marshall islands in the Pacific, and shared the Mariana and Samoa islands with the United States. The murder in 1897 of two German missionaries in China gave Germany a pretext for demanding the cession of the port of Kiaochow in Shantung, China and the murder of the German ambassador in Peking in 1900 compelled Germany to take a prominent part in the expedition of the European powers against China. In 1905 and again in 1911 William II deliberately provoked the French in Morocco, but each time Great Britain supported the French position, and the Emperor was obliged to withdraw.

Meanwhile Germany had strengthened its army and built up a navy that rivaled that of England. This aggressiveness alarmed the major powers, and in 1907 Great Britain, France, and Russia banded together as the Triple Entente. But the Kaiser, as the German emperor had been called since 1871, countered the move by reaching agreements with Bulgaria and Turkey the bonds uniting Germany with Austria-Hungary and Italy held until Italy's withdrawal in 1915.

Read more about Germany and its German Heritage in World War I and later, by looking up Germany and World War I.

Of course much has changed since then and the nation of Germany is a thriving country proud of its heritage. Germany is a place that you would be proud to display your German genealogy, family coat of arms or surname history.


Osobnosť

In Frederick II we encounter one of the most remarkable personalities in world history. His contemporaries called him stupor mundi, the "astonishment of the world" it is particularly astounding, even strange, that the bulk of medieval gottbezogenen Universalismus befangenen observers over the highly developed individual consciousness of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, their tempermental stubborness and their unorthodox, nearly unstoppable Wissbegierde came to be expressed. Even his birth was remarkable. In order to stanch any doubt about his origin, the already 40-year old Constance gave birth to the child publicly in a marketplace. After Henry VI, his father, died at 31, Frederick came under the guardianship of the pope, which the latter, however, neglected him on the basis of power-politics. In Palermo, where the three-year-old boy was brought after his mother's death, he grew up like a street youth. On his own, he roamed a city which swarmed with adventurers and pirates, beggars and jugglers, Arab and Jewish merchants. The only benefit from Innocent III was that at 14 years of age he married a 25-year-old widow named Constance, the daughter of the king of Kingdom of Aragon in what is now Spain. As it happened, both seemed reasonably happy with the arrangement, and Constance soon bore a son, Henry.

Later, it appeared opportune to the pope to support Frederick as a legitimate king to support against the Emperor Otto—whom up to that time the pope had supported. He brought him to Rome, gave him a round of instruction in things political, and sent him, provided with a bull of excommunication against the Guelph Otto, in the direction of Germany. After a difficult passage over the Alps (the Brenner Pass was occupied by enemy troops), he came to Konstanz. The city was preparing to receive Otto and would not allow the new aspirant to the imperial title to remain in the city. However, After a solemn reading of the pope's Bull of Excommunication, the gates of the city were opened for him. Otto, who meanwhile had waited in Überlingen for the ferry, came three weeks later before the city gates and was turned away. Frederick conquered the realm by means of generous promises and donations, without spilling a drop of blood. Otto died some years later, a loned man in the Harzburg, while Frederick would be crowned Emperor in Rome by the pope. In that, too, he showed how unusual he was. At his coronation he carried a brand-new, red coronation robe with a strange ornamentation at the edge. In reality it was an Arabic inscription, which indicated that this robe dated from the year 528, not by the Christian but by Muslim calendar! About this was an Arab benediction: "May the Emperor guter Aufnahme, herrlichen Gedeihens, großer Freigiebigkeit und hohen Glanzes, Ruhmes und prächtiger Ausstattung and the fulfillment of his wishes and hopes erfreuen. May his days and nights im Vergnügen dahin gehen, without end and change." This coronation robe can be found today in the Schatzkammer of the Kunsthistorischen Museum in Vienna.

This was typical of the emperor. While he was being crowned by the Pope to be the highest defender of the Christian faith, his coat referred to the history of Islam. And not only that. He did not exterminate the Saracens Sicilians with fire and sword on the contrary, he allowed them to settle on the mainland and even to build mosques. Not least, he enlisted them in his - Christian - army and even into his personal bodyguards. As these were Moslem soldiers, they were immune from papal excommunication.

A further example of how much he differed from his contemporaries was his Crusade in the Holy Land.


Pozri si video: Einen Biergarten für die Taverne . Medieval Dynasty S1E080