Správa farára o bitke o Long Island - história

Správa farára o bitke o Long Island - história


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Brigádny generál Samuel Parsons Johnovi Adamsovi.

Morrisania, 8. október

. Aby ste mali jasnú predstavu o tejto záležitosti [bitka na Long Islande vás musí trápiť s opisom tej časti krajiny, kde t. nepriateľ pristál a utáboril sa a zasahujúce krajiny medzi touto a osovou líniou.

Od bodu zeme, ktorý tvorí východnú stranu Úzkych, rum, hrebeň kopcov asi N. E. v dĺžke asi 5 alebo 6 míľ, pokrytý a. drevo, ktoré končí v malej stúpajúcej krajine neďaleko Jamajky; cez kopce sú len tri priechody, jeden v blízkosti Úzkych, jeden na ceste nazývanej Flatbush Road a jeden nazývanej Bedford Road, ktorá je krížovou cestou z Bedfordu do Flatbush, ktorá leží na južnej strane týchto kopcov; tieto priesmyky sú cez hory alebo kopce, ľahko obhajiteľné, sú veľmi úzke a krajiny z oboch strán vysoké a hornaté. Toto sú jediné cesty, ktoré je možné prejsť z južnej strany kopca na naše lirty, okrem cesty vedúcej | okolo východného konca kopcov na Jamajku. Na každej z týchto ciest bola umiestnená stráž 800 mužov a východne od nich v lese bol umiestnený plukovník M. so svojim práporom, aby sledoval pohyb nepriateľa na tejto strane, s rozkazom, aby som udržiaval stranu, ktorá sa neustále skúma medzi sebou a naprieč. Jamajská cesta Strážcovia boli umiestnení tak, aby udržiavali stálu komunikáciu medzi tromi strážcami na troch cestách. Južne od týchto kopcov ležia veľké roviny, ktoré sa tiahnu od severnej rieky na východ k zálivu Rockaway asi 5 míľ. a južne k zvuku ohraničenému na juhu zvukom a na severe kopcami. Tie kopce boli od dvoch alebo troch míľ a pol od našich čiar. Nepriateľ pristál na tejto planine a rozšíril svoj tábor od rieky po Flatbush asi 3 alebo 4 míle.

V deň prekvapenia som bol v službe a na začiatku úsvitu som prišiel do mojej stráže zo západnej cesty pri Úžinách a oznámil mi, že nepriateľ postupuje po tejto ceste vo veľkom počte. Onedlho som zistil, že je to pravda a že celý strážca utiekol bez streľby zo zbrane; na západ (ako odvetu vám musím povedať) boli všetci Newyorčania a Pensylvánčania; Za jasného denného svetla som zistil, že nepriateľ prechádza lesom zostupujúcim z kopca na severnej strane, na ktorý som ako 2 -stupňový bojovník na úteku vzal všetko, čo som mohol zhromaždiť, a vzal som stĺp vo výške v ichpredu vo vzdialenosti asi pol míle, ktorá zastavil ich stĺp a nechal čas, aby lord Sterling so svojimi silami vystúpil; toľko k západnej ceste.

Na východe Jamajka plukovník Miles nechal nepriateľa pochodovať nie menej ako 6 míľ, kým sa nedostali blízko dvoch míľ v zadnej časti stráží, než to zistil a oznámil ich prístup. To bolo tiež v noci a strážca, ktorý držali Pennsylvánčania, bol vojskami Nového Anglicka a New Jersey na ďalších dvoch cestách, cez ktoré sa nepriateľ nepokúšal prejsť.

Boli sme prekvapení, že naša hlavná bariéra stratila toto prekvapenie, ale pokiaľ je nočný úkryt ospravedlnením, máme ho. Pristátiu vojsk nebolo možné zabrániť vo vzdialenosti 6 alebo 7 míľ od našich línií; na rovine pod delom lodí, len z pohľadu na breh. Naše nerovnaké počty by si nepripustili útok na ne po pristátí.


Poradie bitky v bitke na Long Islande

Lord Stirling vedie útok proti Britom, aby umožnil ústup iným jednotkám v bitke na Long Islande, 1776. Obraz od Alonza Chappela, 1858.

Bitka na Long Islande bola rozhodujúcim britským víťazstvom na začiatku americkej revolučnej vojny nad americkými silami pod velením generálmajora Georga Washingtona a úvodnou bitkou v úspešnej britskej kampani s cieľom získať kontrolu nad New York City v roku 1776. Američania mali lemoval newyorský prístav rôznymi úrovňami opevnenia a opevnenia, ktoré bránilo množstvo síl kontinentálnej armády a milícií z New Yorku a okolitých štátov. Ώ ] Potom, čo sa Briti v polovici augusta postavili na Long Island bez odporu, Washington posilnil predné pozície v kopcoch centrálneho Brooklynu. ΐ ]

Britské sily viedol generálporučík William Howe a zahŕňali veteránov z obliehania Bostonu, nové pluky z Írska a najali nemecké jednotky z Hesenska-Kasselu. 27. augusta 1776 Howe vykonal úspešný sprievodný manéver okolo americkej ľavice a obsadil americkú pravicu diverznou bitkou. Výsledkom bolo, že značná časť americkej armády uviazla a vzdala sa po tom, čo bol jej ústup do zakorenenej polohy prerušený. Α ] Generál Washington v obkľúčení blížiacej sa pozície úspešne stiahol zostávajúcu armádu na Manhattan v skorých ranných hodinách 29. augusta. Β ]


Bitka na Long Islande

Generáli v bitke o Long Island: Generálmajor William Howe viedol britské a hesenské jednotky proti generálovi Georgovi Washingtonovi a americkej kontinentálnej armáde.

Veľkosť armád na bitka na Long Islande: 20 000 britských a hesenských vojsk proti približne 10 000 Američanom.

Uniformy, zbrane a vybavenie v bitke o Long Island: Briti nosili červené plášte s čiapkami z medvedej kože pre granátnikov, tricorne klobúkmi pre práporové spoločnosti a čiapkami pre ľahkú pechotu. Hesianci nosili modré kabáty. Hesenskí granátnici mali pokosovú čiapku s mosadznou prednou stranou v pruskom štýle.

Američania nemali štandardné uniformy a obliekali sa najlepšie, ako mohli.

Long Island: Bitka na Long Islande 27. augusta 1776 v Americkej revolučnej vojne

Obe strany boli vyzbrojené mušketami a bodákmi. Mnoho mužov pennsylvánskych plukov nosilo puškové zbrane. Obe strany boli podporované delostrelectvom.

Britský dôstojník ľahkých dragúnov: Bitka na Long Islande 27. augusta 1776 v americkej revolučnej vojne

Jedinou jazdou v bitke na Long Islande boli britskí 17. ľahkí dragúni a niekoľko malých Američanov.

Víťaz bitky o Long Island: Briti vyhrali bitku na Long Islande, vyhnali Američanov z Brooklynu a prinútili ich evakuovať New York.

Britské pluky v bitke na Long Islande:
17. ľahké dragúny

Pätka: zložené prápory granátnikov, ľahkej pechoty a peších stráží (1., 2. a 3. garda), 4., 5., 10., 15., 22. a 27., 28., 28., 33., 35., 37. , 38., 42. (Čierna hliadka), 43., 44., 45., 49., 52., 55. a 63. pluk Foot a Fraserovej vysočiny.

Mapa bitky na Long Islande 27. augusta 1776 v Americkej revolučnej vojne: mapa Johna Fawkesa

Popis bitky o Long Island:
Po stiahnutí britskej armády z Bostonu 17. marca 1776 generál George Washington v očakávaní, že generál Howe zaútočí na New York, ktorý sa konal na kongrese, pochodoval veľkú časť svojej armády na juh do tohto mesta z Bostonu.

V skutočnosti sa Briti plavili na sever z Bostonu do Halifaxu v Novom Škótsku a až v lete 1776 Howe zahájil útok na New York.

Britské jednotky vylodené z flotily: Bitka na Long Islande 27. augusta 1776 v Americkej revolučnej vojne

Britská flotila dorazila k vchodu do rieky Hudson 29. júna 1776 a Howe pristála na Staten Island 3. júla. Kongres vyhlásil nezávislosť amerických kolónií nasledujúci deň, 4. júla 1776.

Z Británie začali prichádzať posily a generálmajor Clinton sa vrátil zo svojho neúspešného pokusu zajať Charleston v Južnej Karolíne.

Lord Stirling, americký dôstojník so svojim 1. Marylandským plukom, v bitke na Long Islande 27. augusta 1776 v Americkej revolučnej vojne: obrázok Charles Henry Granger: ‘Starý kamenný dom ’ je v diaľke

Medzitým Američania postavili batérie na Manhattane a Long Islande, aby zabránili britskej flotile preniknúť za New York.

Z 18 000 mužov Washington umiestnil asi 10 000 opevnení na Brooklynských výšinách, ktoré boli otočené k moru a do vnútrozemia, aby bránili prístup na Manhattan. Tejto sile velil generálmajor Israel Putnam. Časť amerických síl držala opevnenú oblasť pozdĺž pobrežia, zatiaľ čo hlavné telo zaujalo pozície pozdĺž vyvýšeného vnútrozemia.

Putnam slúžil počas francúzskych a indických vojen v rôznych strážnych spoločnostiach a v bitke pri Bunker Hill. Bol to tvrdý a populárny muž, ale starší a s obmedzenými schopnosťami vo vysokom velení.

Britský útok: Bitka na Long Islande, 27. augusta 1776 v Americkej revolučnej vojne: obrázok John Fawkes

22. augusta 1776 britská sila pristála na Long Islande južne od amerického opevnenia.

26. augusta 1776 pochodovala hlavná časť britských vojsk na severovýchod pod líniou vyvýšených miest Američanov, aby začali svoj útok. Informácie Britom odhalili, že najsevernejšia z troch ciest po vyvýšenom mieste nebola strážená. Howe vzal svoje vojská po tejto ceste a zaútočil na bok vľavo a vzadu na americkú ľavicu, ktorej velil Sullivan, zatiaľ čo nemecké jednotky útočili vpredu. Sullivanove jednotky boli nútené opustiť svoje pozície s veľkými stratami a ustúpiť za hlavné brooklynské opevnenie.

Bitka o Long Island, 27. augusta 1776 v Americkej revolučnej vojne: obrázok Alonzo Chapell

Vpravo od americkej pozície Clinton zaútočil menšou silou. Americký veliteľ Lord Stirling a jeho muži odolávali niekoľko hodín, kým sa z ich druhého boku neobjavili Briti. Stirlingova sila potom klesla späť na opevnenú líniu.

Bitka o Brooklyn: Bitka na Long Islande, 27. augusta 1776 v Americkej revolučnej vojne

28. augusta 1776 priviedol Washington na Long Island z New Yorku posily, ale s rastúcou hrozbou Kráľovského námorníctva sa 29. augusta stiahol z Brooklynu. Howeovi sa nepodarilo zasahovať do výberu.

Americký ústup cez rieku do New Yorku: Bitka na Long Islande 27. augusta 1776 v Americkej revolučnej vojne

15. septembra 1776 bol Washington nútený opustiť New York. Howe opäť nedokázal zasahovať do stiahnutia, pričom stratil príležitosť dobyť Washington a veľkú časť kontinentálnej armády

Washington bol nútený vykonať bojový ústup k rieke Delaware, kde zimoval.

Obete v bitke na Long Islande: Britské obete boli asi 400 zabitých a zranených, zatiaľ čo Američania stratili asi 2 000 zabitých, zranených a zajatých mužov a niekoľko zbraní.

Pokračovanie bitky o Long Island: Strata Long Islandu a New Yorku predstavovala najhoršie obdobie vojny pre Washington a americkú príčinu nezávislosti. Morálka v častiach kontinentálnej armády skolabovala a celé spoločnosti dezertovali. George Washington ukázal svoju kvalitu tým, že sa zotavil z katastrofy a prestaval kontinentálnu armádu.

Old Stone House: Bitka na Long Islande, 27. augusta 1776 v Americkej revolučnej vojne

Anekdoty z bitky o Long Island:

  • James Alexander, Lord Stirling, z Bernard’s Township, New Jersey, bol prominentným americkým dôstojníkom v Americkej revolučnej vojne a žiadateľom o škótsky titul gróf zo Stirlingu. V bitke na Long Islande Stirling zadržal britský postup so svojim 1. plukom Marylandu v Starom kamennom dome neďaleko Gowanus Creek, čo Washingtonu umožnilo evakuovať zvyšok americkej armády cez rieku do New Yorku. Stirlinga zajali Briti, ale vymenili ho. Stirling sa stal jedným z najdôležitejších podriadených Washingtonu, ale zomrel krátko pred koncom vojny.
  • Starý kamenný dom, scéna boja lorda Stirlinga s britskými jednotkami, bol zrekonštruovaný s použitím originálnych materiálov a je možné ho vidieť v Brooklyne, New York.

Referencie na bitku o Long Island:

História britskej armády od Sir John Fortescue

Vojna revolúcie od Christophera Warda

Americká revolúcia od Brendana Morrisseyho

George Washington a americká evakuácia z Brooklynu: Bitka na Long Islande, 27. augusta 1776 v Americkej revolučnej vojne

Predchádzajúcou bitkou americkej revolučnej vojny je bitka o ostrov Sullivan a#8217s

Ďalšou bitkou americkej revolučnej vojny je bitka o Harlem Heights

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Bitka o Sag Harbor vo vojne za nezávislosť

Pamätník na mieste bitky o prístav Sag na Long Islande. Venované 23. mája 1902.

Long Island bol vojnovou zónou počas americkej revolúcie. Niekedy so sprísňovaním britskej vojenskej kontroly nad New York City a jeho okolím sa slávny dôvod nezávislosti javil ako stratený dôvod pre miestnych vlastencov a americkú armádu.

Veľká bitka sa skončila porážkou pre Patriotov na výšinách Guan. Generál George Washington a jeho armáda sotva unikli zajatiu nočnou hmlou. Tisíce Američanov trpeli chorobami a infekciami z dôvodu žalostných podmienok na britských väzenských lodiach ukotvených v zálive Wallabout Bay. Mnohí zomreli a ich pozostatky boli uložené do vodných hrobov. Na východe boli farmy a lesy na Long Islande svedkami tajných aktivít povstaleckej špionážnej siete, ktorá sa rozšírila až do Setauketu, pričom časté konfrontácie medzi občanmi Loyalistu a Patriota, z mnohých z rovnakých rodín, mali za následok smrť. Potýčky a nájazdy zahŕňajúce súperiace milície, kontinentálnu armádu, britských štamgastov a hesenského žoldniera zasiahli pláne a sondovali brehy od Hempsteadu po Montauk.

Nálety Patriot na základne koruny na ostrove začali v Connecticute. Američania v noci prekročili Long Island Sound. Prechádzali zálivmi a zátokami na jeho severnom pobreží, potichu pochodovali, aby zabránili objaveniu a prenikli do opevnení po celej šírke a po dĺžke ostrova. Odvážne výlety počas vojny priniesli pre americkú vec niekoľko prospešných výsledkov.

Rovnakú taktiku mala aj bitka o Sag Harbor. V tomto boji však Patrioti čelili duelovej výzve vyjednať dvojité vidlice na konci Long Islandu.

Nájazd Sag Harbor

Bitka o Sag Harbor, známa tiež ako Meigs Raid, bola reakciou na úspešný britský nájazd v zásobovacom sklade Patriot v Danbury v Connecticute koncom apríla 1777. Bitka o Ridgefield bola súčasťou tejto kampane. S touto bitkou sú spojené oslavované jazdy 16-ročnej Sybil Ludingtonovej s cieľom odhaliť milície Patriot a hrdinstvo generála Benedikta Arnolda pre americkú stranu.

Odplatu za Long Island zorganizoval v New Havene brigádny generál Samuel Holden Parsons. Podľa jeho správy generálovi Washingtonovi sa sila 234 mužov z niekoľkých plukov zhromaždila v New Havene pod velením plukovníka Connecticutu Return Jonathana Meigsa. Vojaci 21. mája veslovali do Guilfordu 13 veľrýb. Rozbúrené more a silný vietor bránili vojsku v prechode cez Long Island Sound až do 23. apríla popoludní. Dve ozbrojené šalupy a jedna neozbrojená šalvia sprevádzali nájazdníkov. Len 170 dorazilo blízko Southoldu na severnej vidlici Long Islandu približne o 18. hodine.

Britské jednotky obsadili Sag Harbor na južnej vidlici ostrova Long Island od bitky o ostrov Long Island v auguste 1776 (známa aj ako bitka o Brooklyn). Na Meeting House Hill bolo vybudované silné obranné postavenie. Zemné práce chránili asi 70 vojakov pripojených k lojalistickej jednotke podplukovníka Stephena De Lanceyho (rodinný pravopis je tiež uvedený ako de Lancy a Delancey). Tieto jednotky boli pod velením kapitána Jamesa Raymonda. Lode kráľovského námorníctva, ktoré hliadkovali na východnom konci ostrova Long Island Sound, získali zásoby v prístave Sag Harbor, keď zakotvili v neďalekom Gardinerovom zálive.

Po jeho príchode do Southoldu plukovník Meigs preskúmal oblasť. Dozvedel sa, že väčšina britských vojakov bola odoslaná do New Yorku a v prístave Sag Harbour zostala iba malá sila De Lanceyových lojalistov. Miegsovi muži preniesli 11 veľrýb po ostrove North Fork, aby sa dostali do jednej zo zátok medzi týmito dvoma vidlicami. Člnky boli znova spustené a 130 mužov veslovalo smerom k prístavu Sag. Do polnoci pristáli Patrioti asi štyri míle od prístavu. Meigs zostavil svojich mužov na krátky pochod a do prístavu dorazil okolo druhej hodiny ráno.

Veliteľ potom rozdelil svoje sily. Jedno oddelenie zaútočilo na zemné práce na neďalekom kopci Meeting House. Druhý oddiel asi 40 mužov bol poverený zničením britských lodí a odstránením alebo zajatím zásob.

Útok na kopec bol vedený v tichosti s pevnými bodákmi. Iba jeden výstrel bol hlásený vojakom. Na pobreží britský škuner z 12 zbraní spustil paľbu na Američanov, keď pálili člny. Dvanásť lodí bolo zničených. Zahynulo šesť verných. Američania neutrpeli žiadne obete. Útočníci chytili 53 väzňov na posádke a 37 na móle. Väzňov evakuovali do Connecticutu.

Následky a dnes

Víťazstvo v Sag Harbor znamenalo prvý významný americký úspech v štáte New York, odkedy New York City a Long Island pripadli Britom. Ďalšie operácie Patriot, vrátane náletov a washingtonskej špionážnej siete, pokračovali na Long Islande až do konca vojny.

Druhý kontinentálny kongres ocenil plukovníka Meigsa ako uznanie za jeho úspech „elegantný meč“. Na miesto bol 23. mája 1902 položený kameň pripomínajúci bitku.

Dnes je kopec, ktorý obsadila lojalistická posádka a na ktorý zaútočili vlastenci, miestnym cintorínom. Mnoho náhrobných kameňov pochádza z konca 17. storočia a značný počet pochovaných sú miestni vlastenci. Na mieste bitky môže návštevník zablokovaním moderných prienikov pozerať na svah pozemku a predstaviť si boj za nezávislosť, ktorý sa tu odohral pred takmer 250 rokmi.

Mike Virgintino je autorom Freedomland USA.: Definitívna história, príbeh o americkom zábavnom parku, ktorý publikoval Theme Park Press. Nájdete ho na stránkach Amazon, eBay, Goodreads a Barnes & Noble. Kliknutím na obrázok získate priamy odkaz na Amazon.

Zoznam vojakov revolučnej vojny pochovaných na cintoríne.

Náhrobný kameň vojaka revolučnej vojny na mieste bitky o prístav Sag.

Bitka o Sag Harbor na konci Long Islandu sa odohrala na tomto kopci, ktorý je miestom posledného odpočinku miestnych vlastencov, ktorí bojovali za nezávislosť.


Ústup na Manhattan

V noci z 29. na 30. augusta 1776 americké jednotky previezli z Brooklynu na Manhattan. Washington napísal Johnovi Hancockovi, predsedovi kontinentálneho kongresu.

Sklon a povinnosť by ma prinútili poskytnúť Kongresu najskoršie informácie o mojom odstránení a údajoch vojakov z Long Island & amp; jeho závislostí na tomto meste predvčerom, ale extrémna únava, ktorú som ja a rodina podstúpili toľko z počasia od zásnub 27. dňa ma urobilo & amp; úplne nespôsobilým vziať pero do ruky - Od pondelka je málokto z nás mimo línií, kým sa náš prechod cez East River neuskutočnil Včera ráno & amp; Forty Eight Hours predchádzajúci tomu, že som sotva bol zo [svojho] koňa a nikdy som nezavrel oči, takže som bol celkom nevhodný do dnešného rána písať alebo diktovať.

Náš ústup sa uskutočnil bez straty ľudí alebo munície a v lepšom poriadku, ako som očakával od vojakov v situácii, v akej sme boli —Prevliekli sme všetky naše obchody s delami a zosilňovačmi, okrem niekoľkých ťažkých kúr, ktoré v stave zeme spôsoboval dlhý nepretržitý dážď, sme zistili, že skúšobná verzia je nerealizovateľná. celá naša sila, aby sme ich odtiahli - ponechali sme na ostrove len malé zásoby, s výnimkou dobytka, ktorý bol poháňaný našimi líniami a ktorý sme po mnohých pokusoch pretlačiť cez vodu považovali za nemožný, a tak sme ho obchádzali …

Pri zásnubách 27. generálov boli Sullivan a amp Stirling uväznení … Tiež sa mi zatiaľ nepodarilo získať presný popis našej straty, predpokladáme, že od 700 do tisíc, zabitých a vzatých - Genl Sullivan hovorí, že Lord Howe si veľmi želá vidieť niektorých členov Kongresu, za akým účelom mu bolo umožnené vystúpiť a oznámiť im, čo sa medzi ním a jeho lordstvom dialo - súhlasil som s jeho odchodom do Philadelphie, pretože som nemyslite alebo si predstavte, že je správne odmietnuť alebo zabrániť mu v poskytovaní takých informácií, akými disponuje v tomto prípade.

S pozdravom kongres Congress & amp; Your Most Obedt He Servt

Nepriateľské akcie sa pozastavili na desať dní, zatiaľ čo Howe odišiel do New Jersey hovoriť s delegátmi z Kongresu. 11. septembra 1776 Edward Rutledge oznámil výsledky Washingtonu:

Musím vás požiadať, aby som vás informoval, že sa zúčastnila našej konferencie s Lordom Howeom bez okamžitých výhod - Vyhlásil, že nemá žiadne právomoci, ktoré by nás považovali za nezávislé štáty, a my ľahko zistíme, že keby sme boli stále závislí, od tých, ktorým je zverený, by sme nič nečakali - Celkove hovoril o generáloch, že sem prišiel konzultovať, radiť a radiť sa s pánmi o najväčšom vplyve kolónií na ich sťažnosti, že kráľ zreviduje Akty parlamentu a kráľovské pokyny na základe týchto správ, ako napr. mali by byť vyrobené a Zdá sa, že opraví našu nápravu na dobrej vôli a potešení Jeho Veličenstva —Tento druh konverzácie trval niekoľko hodín a, ako som už povedal, bez akéhokoľvek účinku. Naša spoľahlivosť preto naďalej (pod Bohom) závisí od vašej múdrosti, sily a sile a od vašich síl. Aby ste boli tak úspešní, ako vás poznám. sú hodné, je moje najúprimnejšie želanie … (celé písmeno tu)


Držanie histórie v rukách: Vzácny list z povrchov Americkej revolúcie

(Kredit: Copyright G. Gosen Rare Books & Old Paper)

Krátky list bol preč, rýchlo, tento mesiac pred 246 rokmi. Odoslané z New London, Connecticut, cez Long Island Sound na Shelter Island, dorazilo vlhké z toho, čo musel byť skalnatý prechod, ale dodnes je stále robustné a čitateľné.

List je napísaný 27. apríla 1775 od Thomasa Fosdicka jeho švagrovi Nicollovi Havensovi a je pohľadom na emócie, ktoré Američania cítili v momente, keď sa zrodila americká revolúcia.

Thomas Fosdick napísal: „Drahý brat, posielam vám priložený spravodajský dokument, ktorý obsahuje najviac Larming News of the King's Soldiers Strike úder to the Americans, I Recd the News Last Night, & amp are one Fixing to Go Ihneď do Bostonu „Takže mám iba čas, aby som vám oznámil, že som ten, kto sa chystá, kto je váš milujúci brat Thos. Fosdick. "

Ďalej v liste dodal: „Dnešné ranné správy prišli, že mali tri bitky od chvíle, keď odišli prvé správy —T. Fosdick. "

Hovorí sa, že statočnosť kráča k zvuku streľby pre dobrú vec, presne to povedal Fosdick svojmu švagrovi na ostrove Shelter, na ktorý sa chystá. „The Larming News“ boli správy o bitke pri Lexingtone a Concordu 19. apríla 1775. A mladý Fosdick odišiel do Massachusetts, aby sa prihlásil.

Postúpil do hodnosti majora a bol pobočníkom brigádneho generála Johna Glovera, ktorý bojoval v mnohých bitkách vojny za nezávislosť. Bol menovaný v depešiach generálovi Georgovi Washingtonovi, čo je pocta každému americkému vojakovi.

List, históriu, ktorú môžete držať v rukách, teraz predáva Manhattan’s Gosen Rare Books & amp Old Paper. Majiteľ Gary Gosen povedal reportérovi, že má niekoľko ďalších historických zaujímavostí týkajúcich sa ostrova Shelter. Ak chcete získať ďalšie informácie, kontaktujte pána Gosena na [e -mail  protected].

Bitka o Lexington a Concord bola vyvrcholením rokov vriacich sporov a trpkých odporov medzi anglickou korunou a americkými kolonistami, ktoré sa postupne, nevyhnutne vznietili v plameňoch revolúcie a vojny. Massachusetts bol centrom revolučného zápalu, občania sa vyzbrojovali a pripravovali sa na rozsiahle zúčtovanie s britskými jednotkami.

Večer 18. apríla 1775 pochodovali Redcoats z Bostonu do Concordu, aby preskúmali správy o skladovaní zbraní pre povstalcov. Strieborník a revolucionár Paul Revere zalarmoval miestne milície, ktoré boli v Lexingtone pripravené zapojiť britských štamgastov. Zle vycvičení a vyradení Američania zúrivo bojovali a porazili Britov, ktorí sa stiahli späť do Bostonu.

Každý Američan pozná príbeh zvečnený najmä v poézii „Príbeh domáceho pána“, ktorý otvára: „Počúvajte, deti moje/ a budete počuť/ O polnočnej jazde Paula Revereho/ Osemnásteho apríla, v sedemdesiatich piatich … ”

Ale ako poznamenal Ralph Waldo Emerson, bitkou pri Lexingtone a Concordu neboli postihnutí len Američania: „Pri hrubom moste, ktorý obklopoval povodeň/ Rozvinula sa ich vlajka k aprílovému vánku,/ Tu kedysi stáli neobsadení farmári/ A vystrelil výstrel, ktorý bolo počuť po celom svete. “

Nicoll Havens, ktorý sa oženil s Annou Fosdickovou, sestrou Thomasa Fosdicka, zohral veľkú úlohu v histórii jeho mesta, regiónu a krajiny. Podpísal „Vyhlásenie nezávislosti“ Shelter Island z mája 1775, ktoré bolo navrhnuté a podpísané mužskými hlavami domácností na ostrove len mesiac po bitke pri Lexingtone a Concorde. Vo svojom živote zastával mnoho volených úradov na ostrove Shelter Island a tiež krajské a štátne úrady.

V reportérskom príbehu z júla 2019 Karen Kiaer, historička Dcér amerického ostrova Shelter Island (DAR), a Joyce Bowditch-Bausman, čestná regentka DAR, hovorili o tom, ako počas revolúcie mohli byť susedia priatelia alebo nepriatelia Ostrov Shelter Island mal prekvapivo jednotnú podporu nezávislosti na Britoch,

Podľa pani Kiaerovej Island za ich povstanie draho zaplatil. V čísle časopisu DAR „Americké portály“ z roku 2010 je popísaný záväzok Islanders k revolúcii. Po porážke Georga Washingtona v auguste 1776 v bitke na Long Islande bolo zajatých 1 000 revolučných vojakov. Títo vojnoví zajatci boli držaní v narýchlo postavených väzeniach, ako aj na palubách väzenských lodí, ukotvených pri East Ende a podľa historických správ držaní v žalostných podmienkach, s preplneným hladom a chorobami.

Niektorí z týchto 1 000 vlastencov boli z ostrova Shelter Island a niektorí sú na ostrove pochovaní.

A teraz vyplával na povrch dávny list od jedného švagra druhému, ktorý nám dáva pohľad na naliehavosť a vášeň dvoch vlastencov počas chvíle, keď sa koleso svetových dejín otočilo.

Ambrose Clancy je redaktorom časopisu Shelter Island Reporter od roku 2012. Pracoval ako reportér štábu pre The North Shore Sun, Southampton Press a bol spolupracovníkom redaktora Riverhead News-Review a redaktora Long Island Business News.

Chcete sa vyjadriť k tomuto článku? Pošlite nám namiesto toho list redaktorovi.


Poradie bitky v bitke na Long Islande - Americké sily

Vojaci pripravení postaviť sa proti Britom pochádzali predovšetkým z plukov kontinentálnej armády, aj keď v tejto oblasti pôsobilo aj veľké množstvo milícií z New Yorku, Connecticutu, New Jersey a Pensylvánie. Značný počet kontinentálov sa zúčastnil obliehania Bostonu, po ktorom sa presťahovali k jednotkám, ktoré už v New Yorku pripravovali svoju obranu. Niektoré jednotky sa zúčastnili expedícií proti Quebecu, ktoré sa začali na jeseň 1775. Tento pokus sa skončil v júni 1776 po katastrofálnom ústupe do Fort Ticonderoga, ktorý bol vyvolaný príchodom veľkých britských síl do Quebec City, a niektoré z týchto jednotiek sa potom ponáhľali na juh do pomáhať v New Yorku. Americká obrana Long Islandu sa skomplikovala, keď generálmajor Nathanael Greene ochorel 15. augusta. Riadil obranné práce na Long Islande, a bol teda generálom najznámejším v teréne. Washington ho 20. augusta nahradil generálmajorom Johnom Sullivanom, ktorý sa nedávno vrátil z Ticonderogy. Po vyslaní posíl na Long Island 25. augusta Washington nahradil Sullivana poradím generálmajora Izraela Putnama. David Hackett Fischer poznamenáva, že americká veliteľská situácia bola „zamotaná, že jednotky si neboli istí svojimi veliteľmi a neboli si istí pozíciami, ktoré mali brániť“.

Základom tohto poradia bitky je návrat, ktorý pripravil generál Washington 3. augusta. Zahŕňa všetky jednotky umiestnené v oblasti New Yorku, nielen tie, ktoré sú zapojené do bitky. Celková poskytnutá suma je zoznam všetky vojakov, nielen tých, ktorí sú uvedení ako pripravení do služby. Značný počet vojakov bol v júli a auguste chorých. Napríklad generál William Heath, ktorý píše vo svojich spomienkach, zaznamenal, že 8. augusta bolo asi 10 000 mužov chorých a Washington informoval, že 2. septembra je prítomných menej ako 20 000 mužov, ktorí sú spôsobilí na službu. Neskoršie návraty boli zjavne nemožné: Washington 26. augusta napísal Kongresu, že „posun a zmena, ktorou pluky v poslednom čase prešli, zabránila ich riadnemu návratu a samozrejme dáva mimo moju právomoc vysielať generála armády. . "

Poznámky pre každú jednotku poskytujú určitý údaj o tom, kde bola umiestnená a aké pohyby vykonávala, najmä od 22. do 29. augusta, v časovom období, v ktorom došlo k niekoľkým významným pohybom a preradeniam vojsk. Po vylodení Britov na Long Islande bolo niekoľko jednotiek presunutých z Manhattanu na Long Island a ďalšie boli poslané počas bojov a po nich na posilnenie obrany, než boli 29. augusta konečne opustené.

Podrobnejšie americké obete nie sú k dispozícii, pretože mnohé z príslušných záznamov boli zničené požiarom v roku 1800. Britské a hesenské odhady uvádzali celkové americké straty na úrovni 3 000 osôb a návrat, ktorý pripravil generál Howe, uviedol 1 097 väzňov vrátane generálov Johna Sullivana, Lorda Stirlinga. a Nathaniel Woodhull. Počet obetí na konkrétnych jednotkách je ojedinelý. Historik John Gallagher zostavil čiastočný zoznam potvrdzujúci 1 120 mŕtvych alebo nezvestných, pričom poznamenáva, že chýbajú výnosy 52 zo 70 jednotiek pod velením Washingtonu. Marylandský pluk Williama Smallwooda bol prakticky vyhladený, utrpel 256 mŕtvych a viac ako 100 zajatých z jednotky s takmer 400. Údaje o nehodách sú uvedené ako poznámky, ak sú pre danú jednotku k dispozícii.

Jednotka Veliteľ Veľkosť jednotky Poznámky
Putnamova divízia
Veliteľ Generálmajor Izrael Putnam 5,615 Táto divízia bola počas bitky umiestnená na Manhattane.
Read's Brigade Plukovník Joseph Read 1,997 Táto brigáda bola skutočne pridelená brig. Generál James Clinton. Read to prikázal v generálovej neprítomnosti.
3. kontinentálny pluk Plukovník Ebenezer sa učil 521
13. kontinentálny pluk Plukovník Joseph Read 505
23. kontinentálny pluk Plukovník John Bailey 503
26. kontinentálny pluk Plukovník Loammi Baldwin 468
Scottova brigáda Brigádny generál John Morin Scott 1,527 Táto jednotka bola pôvodne umiestnená na dolnom Manhattane. It was sent to Long Island before the battle.
New York militia Colonel John Lasher 510
New York levies Colonel William Malcolm 297
New York militia Colonel Samuel Drake 459
New York militia Colonel Cornelius Humphrey 261
Fellows' Brigade Brigadier General John Fellows 2,091 This brigade was stationed on Manhattan, and did not participate in the battle.
Massachusetts militia Colonel Jonathan Holman 606 This unit was from Worcester County.
Massachusetts militia Colonel Simeon Cary 569 This unit had men from Bristol and Plymouth Counties.
Massachusetts militia Colonel Jonathan Smith 551 This unit was from Berkshire County.
14th (Marblehead) Continental Regiment Colonel John Glover 365 Glover's regiment, stationed on Manhattan during the battle, was sent over to Brooklyn on August 28, and was instrumental in evacuating the army on the night of August 29–30.
Heath's Division
Veliteľ Major General William Heath 4,265 Heath, based at King's Bridge, was responsible for the northernmost defenses, on the Hudson just above Manhattan. Most of his units were not involved in the battle.
Mifflin's Brigade Brigadier General Thomas Mifflin 2,453 This brigade was stationed at Harlem Heights, and did not participate in the battle. Mifflin went to Brooklyn with some of his troops, and commanded the rear of the retreat to Manhattan.
5th Pennsylvania Battalion Colonel Robert Magaw 480 These units was sent to Brooklyn on the morning of August 28.
3rd Pennsylvania Battalion Colonel John Shee 496
27th Continental Regiment Colonel Israel Hutchinson 513 This unit (along with John Glover's) manned the boats during the retreat.
16th Continental Regiment Colonel Paul Dudley Sargent 527
Ward's Connecticut Regiment Colonel Andrew Ward 437
Clinton's Brigade Brigadier General George Clinton 1,812 This unit was stationed in upper Manhattan before the battle.
New York militia Colonel Isaac Nichol 289 This unit was from Orange County.
New York militia Colonel Thomas Thomas 354 This unit was from Westchester County.
New York militia Colonel James Swartwout 364 This unit was from Dutchess County.
New York militia Colonel Levi Paulding 368 This unit was from Ulster County.
New York militia Colonel Morris Graham 437 This unit was from Dutchess County.
Spencer's Division
Veliteľ Major General Joseph Spencer 5,889 Initially stationed in lower Manhattan, some of these units were sent over to Long Island before the battle.
Parson's Brigade Brigadier General Samuel Holden Parsons 2,469 This brigade was sent to Long Island on August 25, when it was clear that was the British target. Parsons had overall command of the Gowanus Heights defenses.
10th Continental Regiment Colonel John Tyler 569
17th Continental Regiment Colonel Jedediah Huntington 348 This unit suffered heavy casualties: 199 killed or missing.
20th Continental Regiment Colonel John Durkee 520
21st Continental Regiment Colonel Jonathan Ward 502
22nd Continental Regiment Colonel Samuel Wyllys 530 This regiment was assigned to guard the Bedford Pass the night before the battle.
Wadsworth's Brigade Brigadier General James Wadsworth 3,420
1st Connecticut State Levies Colonel Gold Selleck Silliman 415 This unit was initially stationed on Manhattan, but was transferred to Long Island before the battle.
2nd Connecticut State Levies Colonel Fisher Gay 449
3rd Connecticut State Levies Colonel Comfort Sage 482 This unit was initially stationed on Manhattan, but was transferred to Long Island before the battle.
4th Connecticut State Levies Colonel Samuel Selden 464
5th Connecticut State Levies Colonel William Douglas 506
6th Connecticut State Levies Colonel John Chester 535 This unit was initially stationed on Manhattan, but was transferred to Long Island before the battle. It was assigned to guard the Bedford Pass the night before the battle.
7th Connecticut State Levies Colonel Phillip Burr Bradley 569
Sullivan's Division
Veliteľ Major General John Sullivan 5,688 Sullivan took command of this division on August 20, when Maj. Gen. Nathanael Greene fell ill. The division was on the far left of the American line, and suffered the most from the British onslaught. Sullivan was the most senior Continental officer taken prisoner in the battle.
Stirling's Brigade Brigadier General William Alexander (Lord Stirling) 3,700 This brigade was sent to Long Island on August 25, when it was clear that was the British target. Stirling was stationed on the right side of the American line on the Gowanus Heights. His command was almost wiped out after becoming surrounded, and he was taken prisoner.
1st Maryland Regiment Colonel William Smallwood 400 This unit anchored the right against British General Grant's diversionary attack. Some of its men, the Maryland 400, fought a vicious rearguard action making possible the escape of much of Stirling's command. More than 100 men were captured and 256 killed, practically wiping the regiment out.
1st Delaware Regiment Colonel John Haslet 750 This unit fought in the center against British General Grant's diversionary attack.
Pennsylvania State Rifle Regiment Colonel Samuel Miles 650 This unit was responsible for guarding the hills at the far left of the American line. It suffered heavy casualties: 209 killed or missing.
Pennsylvania State Battalion of Musketry Colonel Samuel John Atlee 650 This unit fought against British General Grant's diversionary attack, and suffered 89 casualties.
Pennsylvania militia Lieutenant Colonel Nicholas Lutz 200
Pennsylvania militia Lieutenant Colonel Peter Hachlein 200
Pennsylvania militia Major William Hay 200
McDougall's Brigade Brigadier General Alexander McDougall 1,988 Originally stationed in lower Manhattan, some of these troops were sent to Long Island before the battle.
1st New York Regiment Colonel Goose Van Schaick 428 This was McDougall's regiment prior to his promotion.
2nd New York Regiment Colonel Rudolphus Ritzema 434
19th Continental Regiment Colonel Charles Webb 542 This unit was sent to Long Island before the battle.
Artificers Colonel Jonathan Brewer 584
Greene's Division
Veliteľ Major General Nathanael Greene 3,912 Greene was taken ill on August 15 his division was commanded by John Sullivan. It was the principal force defending Long Island.
Nixon's Brigade Brigadier General John Nixon 2,318 This brigade was sent to Long Island on August 25, when it was clear that was the British target.
1st Pennsylvania Regiment Colonel Edward Hand 288
Varnum's Rhode Island Regiment Colonel James Mitchell Varnum 391
Hitchcock's Rhode Island Regiment Colonel Daniel Hitchcock 368
4th Continental Regiment Colonel Thomas Nixon 419
7th Continental Regiment Colonel William Prescott 399
12th Continental Regiment Colonel Moses Little 453
Heard's Brigade Brigadier General Nathaniel Heard 1,594 This brigade was sent to Long Island on August 25, when it was clear that was the British target.
New Jersey State Troops Colonel David Forman 372
New Jersey militia Colonel Philip Johnston 235 Johnston's unit was on guard duty on the Flatbush Road the night before the attack. Johnston was mortally wounded in the battle.
New Jersey militia Colonel Ephraim Martin 382
New Jersey militia Colonel Silas Newcomb 336
New Jersey militia Colonel Phillip Van Cortlandt 269
Other units
Connecticut militia brigade Brigadier General Oliver Wolcott 4,200 This brigade was stationed on Manhattan, and did not participate in the battle. The unit strengths are described in surviving documents as an average.
2nd Connecticut Militia Lt. Colonel Jabez Thompson 350
13th Connecticut Militia Colonel Benjamin Hinman 350
18th Connecticut Militia Colonel Jonathan Pettibone 350
16th Connecticut Militia Colonel Joseph Platt Cooke 350
23rd Connecticut Militia Colonel Matthew Talcott 350
22nd Connecticut Militia Colonel Samuel Chapman 350
10th Connecticut Militia Lt. Colonel Jonathan Baldwin 350
9th Connecticut Militia Lt. Colonel John Mead 350
4th Connecticut Militia Lt. Colonel Ichabod Lewis 350
19th Connecticut Militia Lt. Colonel George Pitkin 350
15th Connecticut Militia Lt. Colonel Selah Heart (taken prisoner 9/15/1776) Major Simeon Strong 350
1st Connecticut Militia Major Roger Newberry 350
Long Island militia Brigadier General Nathaniel Woodhull 450 These units performed "fatigue" work, principally driving cattle. Stationed on the American left, it included small cavalry units familiar with the area, but these were not used for guard duty.
Long Island militia Colonel Josiah Smith 250 This unit was from Suffolk County.
Long Island militia Colonel Jeronimus Remsen 200 This unit was mainly from Queens County, and included men from Kings County.
Delostrelectvo Colonel Henry Knox 403
Total size 30,434
Unless otherwise cited, the information in this table is provided by Fischer, pp. 385–388.

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Battle of Long Island

As George Washington had anticipated, British forces under General William Howe departed from Halifax in the late spring of 1776 and headed for New York City. They entered the harbor in late June and on July 2 established headquarters on Staten Island. Ten days later, Admiral Lord Richard Howe arrived with additional forces. Over a period of several weeks the British army grew to about 32,000 men, including more than 8,000 mercenaries hired for service in America. Washington had moved the Continental Army from Boston following the British evacuation. He realized that New York City would be difficult to defend, but its strategic and symbolic importance dictated that the effort be made. Fortifications were erected around the city, which was then confined to the southern tip of Manhattan, as well as on the Brooklyn Heights area of Long Island to the east of the city. The Americans were unsure of where the British would choose to strike first. Beginning on August 22, the British plan began to become clear. Soldiers were transported from Staten Island to Long Island by way of Gravesend Bay. Meanwhile, on the waters off New York City, Lord Howe exchanged fire with American batteries on Manhattan. Within a few days, 20,000 British soldiers congregated in the vicinity of the village of Flatbush. The American army of 10,000 was deployed in a series of fortified positions on Brooklyn Heights and spread across the surrounding Heights of Guan. Several skirmishes occurred between small bands of the opposing forces over the following days.

On the night of August 26, British forces under General Howe were able to take advantage of intelligence provided by local Loyalists, who identified an undefended pass leading up to the Heights of Guan. Under the cover of darkness British soldiers managed to gain a position between American forces on Guan and the main force on Brooklyn Heights. In the daylight of the 27th the British opened fire on astonished Americans, who quickly recognized their dire situation. Soldiers under John Sullivan of New Hampshire broke and ran. Fellow American commander William Alexander of Pennsylvania, known as Lord Stirling because of his claim to a Scottish title, fought effectively for a while, but was slowly encircled by numerically superior British forces. It was evident that disaster could be averted only by retreating down the hill and across the swamplands by Gowanus Creek. Such a move, however, would expose the Americans to deadly fire from the British in the hills above. To provide cover for the retreat, Alexander and Major Mordecai Gist led a band of 250 Marylanders on a direct assault against the British lines. The Americans broke under withering fire, but regrouped and bought sufficient time to allow the bulk of the army to flee, often throwing arms aside, to Brooklyn Heights. Only a handful of the Marylanders were able to escape. Alexander was eventually surrounded and he surrendered, and Sullivan was captured. The Americans listed about 1,400 casualties from the Battle of Long Island. The British toll numbered fewer than 400. This embarrassing display was observed by a helpless Washington from atop Brooklyn Heights. For the next two days, he and his army expected a British assault, an event that would most likely had led to a decisive British victory. During this period of quiet, the weather was unseasonably cold and a steady rain fell American morale was at a low point and many soldiers talked of surrender. On the advice of his subordinates, Washington took advantage of British inaction and planned a retreat to Manhattan. British control of the harbor and rivers made this a risky prospect. Nevertheless, on the evening of August 29, the American army was ferried across the East River in a flotilla of small craft provided by sympathetic civilians. The retreat was aided immensely by calm waters that enabled the overloaded boats to make the crossing safely and by thick fog in the early hours of the next day that masked the departure of the last soldiers — which included a somber Washington. The question remains about why the British did not use their superiority on land and sea to strike a potentially lethal blow against the Patriot cause. Most historians agree that William Howe chose not to assault Brooklyn Heights because of his earlier experience at Bunker Hill where he also commanded an overwhelming force, but suffered extremely heavy losses. The general decided instead to set up a siege, believing that time was on his side. The failure of his brother, Admiral Howe, to halt the retreat across the East River has been ascribed to unfavorable winds that prevented his ships from destroying the tiny American flotilla and its human cargo. More recent historians, however, have argued that no ill wind was blowing at the time and that the admiral, a friend of America, was hoping to conclude affairs with a peace settlement, not a military victory to conclude the Battle of Long Island. See also campaigns of 1776 and timeline of the War of Independence.


George Washington: Defeated at the Battle of Long Island

General George Washington knew he had badly miscalculated. On August 27, 1776, British forces under a far more experienced military professional, General Sir William Howe, had soundly drubbed the American army in the Battle of Long Island and were now poised to finish it off. Outnumbered and out- generaled, with their backs to the East River and the British in front of them, the Americans appeared doomed. If Washington lost his army, it could mean the end of the Revolution.

Washington was well aware that his experience in the French and Indian War, 20 years earlier, hardly qualified him for his current position as commander in chief of the American armies. As a young colonial officer serving the British, Washington had lost a battle to the French at his hastily erected Fort Necessity in 1754. Serving as a militia colonel under British General Edward Braddock in 1755, the Virginian had fought gallantly at Fort Duquesne, but the British lost anyway. His one success had been a surprise attack against a small French party early in the war. ‘I heard the bullets whistle,’ Washington wrote to his brother Lawrence afterward ‘and believe me, there is something charming in the sound.’ (After a London newspaper printed Washington’s letter, King George II wryly remarked, ‘He would not say so had he heard many.’) The Americans were finding the sound somewhat less charming after the battles at Lexington, Concord, and Bunker Hill. Whether they were prepared for it or not, the colonies were now at war — a war requiring an army and a commander in chief to lead it.

Patriot leader John Adams and his cousin Samuel knew that finding a commander acceptable to all the colonies would be difficult. Charles Lee, Benjamin Church, Israel Putnam, and even John Hancock wanted the position. But the two Adams men decided Washington would lend dignity to the cause. Furthermore, placing a Virginian in the post would help deflect criticism that Massachusetts was dominating the Revolution. Although he did not lobby for the post, Washington signaled his willingness to accept it by wearing his scarlet and blue uniform of the Virginia militia to the meetings of the Second Continental Congress.

On June 15, 1775, the Congress approved the choice of Washington. The new commander in chief then read a letter of acceptance. ‘Mr. President, tho’ I am truly sensible of the high honour done me in this appointment, yet I feel distress from the consciousness that my abilities and Military experience may not be equal to the extensive and important Trust,’ he said. ‘However, as the Congress desires, I will enter upon the momentous duty and, exert every power I Possess in their service for the Support of the Glorious Cause . . . .’ He also said he would keep an ‘exact account’ of his expenses and that he would accept no more than that for his service.

Washington achieved a quick victory in Boston when he placed cannon captured at Fort Ticonderoga atop Dorchester Heights and forced the British out of the city. Washington and his most experienced and trusted commander at that time, General Charles Lee, believed that the British would probably focus their efforts on the New York area. It was a logical assumption. If General Howe controlled New York City, he could send armies north or south while his brother, Admiral Richard ‘Black Dick’ Howe, could easily lend naval support wherever General Howe might need it.

Washington and Lee knew it would be difficult to defend New York, but it was a political necessity. At the very least the Americans had to make the British pay severely for the city, as they had made them pay at Bunker Hill. So with Lee back in the Boston area, Washington marched to New York to try to accomplish the nearly impossible. He planned to defend New York City by digging in and making earthworks for gun positions in Manhattan, in Brooklyn, and on the Battery. In addition, he intended to build Fort Washington up on Manhattan Island’s northern tip. The fortifications themselves were well engineered and executed, but the plan was too ambitious and spread the Patriot forces too thin.

General Washington placed his largest contingent of troops, numbering 4,000 and commanded by Nathanael Greene, on Long Island’s Brooklyn Heights, overlooking Brooklyn and New York City. He considered these soldiers to be his best units. On paper Washington probably had about 20,000 men in his army. But half of them were in various state militias, poorly trained, poorly equipped, and lacking discipline. Many in the regular army suffered from camp diseases and were too ill to fight. Facing them were General Howe and approximately 32,000 soldiers, including some 8,000 Hessians. Admiral Howe supported his brother with the largest expeditionary force Britain had ever dispatched — 10,000 sailors on 30 warships, with 1,200 guns and hundreds of supporting vessels. ‘Every thing breathes the Appearance of War,’ wrote the commander of one British frigate. ‘The Number of Transports are incredible. I believe there are more than 500 of different kinds, besides the King’s ships — a Force so formidable would make the first Power in Europe tremble . . . .’

On August 22 the British made their opening moves. In six hours Admiral Howe efficiently ferried his brother’s troops from Staten Island to Long Island and landed them below Greene’s position on Brooklyn Heights. Unfortunately for the Americans, Greene had become seriously ill, and Washington replaced him with John Sullivan of New Hampshire. Dissatisfied with Sullivan’s performance, Washington put another New Englander, Israel Putnam of Connecticut, in his place. As a result, he had a commander in the field who had no knowledge of the local terrain.

Washington worried about how his largely untested army would stand up under fire. In an attempt to motivate his men, he wrote out general orders and had them read to his troops. ‘The time is now near at hand, which must probably determine whether Americans are to be freemen or slaves whether they are to have any property they can call their own whether their homes and farms are to be pillaged and destroyed. The fate of unborn millions will now depend, under God, on the conduct and courage of this army . . . . We have therefore to resolve to conquer or die… ‘ General Putnam set up his line of defense on a wooded rise called the Heights of Guan. The ridge ran roughly parallel to the East River behind it. Four passes cut through the heights. The Americans were defending three of them, but in a colossal strategic blunder Putnam left the one on his left flank, Jamaica Pass, unprotected. It was all the advantage Howe needed. On the night of August 26 the British general personally took charge of a force of 10,000 troops under Sir Henry Clinton, Lord Charles Cornwallis, and Sir Hugh Percy and, guided by local Tories, moved through Jamaica Pass so he could fall upon the Americans from the rear. Early the next morning cannons signaled the British to begin their attack all along the American front. General Philip von Heister’s Hessians kept the American center busy, while General James Grant’s 5,000 troops hit the American right. Then Howe’s 10,000 soldiers emerged from Jamaica Pass and wrapped up the unprotected left flank and the American rear. Howe’s surprise was complete. ‘[W]e were ordered to attempt a retreat by fighting our way through the enemy, who had . . . nearly filled every field and road between us and our lines [at Brooklyn],’ wrote an American soldier. ‘We had not retreated a quarter of a mile before we were fired upon by an advanced part of the enemy, and those upon our rear were playing upon us with their artillery. Our men fought with more than Roman virtue . . . .’ The Hessians moving in from the center attacked especially fiercely — sometimes bayoneting Americans trying to surrender. ‘We took care to tell the Hessians that the Rebels had resolved to give no quarters to them in particular, which made them fight desperately and put all to death that fell into their hands,’ a British soldier wrote.

The day proved to be a disaster for the Americans, but it would have been even worse if not for the action of William Smallwood’s regiment of 400 to 500 men from Maryland, temporarily commanded by a young and capable major named Mordecai Gist. Although inexperienced, they were among the best and bravest troops that day. While under fierce attack they made an orderly retreat to the Cortelyou house, a stone structure that commanded the Mill Dam Road and bridge, the only escape route across the Gowanus Salt Marsh.

American General William Alexander (who claimed a Scottish title and called himself Lord Stirling) ordered Gist and 250 men to hold off the enemy while the other Americans withdrew across the Mill Dam Road. Not only did Gist’s men hold off the British, they made six counterattacks before being forced to scatter and make their individual ways back to the American lines. Watching from afar, General Washington turned to Israel Putnam. ‘Good God, what brave fellows I must this day lose,’ he said. Those few surviving Marylanders who could swim and who were lucky made it back. ‘There was in this action a regiment of Maryland troops (volunteers), all young gentlemen,’ recalled Joseph Plumb Martin, then 17 years old and a member of the nearby Connecticut Fifth. ‘When they came out of the water and mud to us, looking like water rats, it was a truly pitiful sight. Many of them were killed in the pond and many were drowned.’ The British had soon backed the Americans into a defensive position two miles across and about one mile deep on the shore of the East River. Fortunately for Washington, the winds had prevented Admiral Howe from sailing his fleet up the river and using his great firepower to wreak havoc with the patriots. The general knew only too well what would happen if the wind changed.

Despite the urging of subordinates who wanted to complete their victory, General Howe stopped his attack. Perhaps he feared a repeat of the costly and bloody ‘victory’ he had won at Bunker Hill. In a report to the British Parliament, Howe later said that the American army ‘could be had at a cheap price,’ meaning through a siege. Whatever Howe thought, his delay helped save Washington and the American cause.

Washington now called on Colonel John Glover of Massachusetts, who commanded one of the army’s crack regiments. Glover’s ‘Marvelous Men from Marblehead’ were well trained and wore smart blue-and-white uniforms. They were seamen and fishermen, so they were accustomed to shipboard discipline and were quick to carry out orders. As one Pennsylvania officer wrote, ‘[T]he only exception I recollect to have seen to the miserably constituted bands [Massachusetts regiments] was the regiment of Glover. There was an appearance of discipline in this corps.’ Washington had used Glover and his men before. The Hannah, the first ship to sail in the service of the new United States, was Colonel Glover’s own schooner, for which he found cannons and trained a crew and then successfully harassed British shipping and captured supplies for the Continental Army. In the wake of Hannah’s success, Washington asked Glover for two more ships to create what became known as ‘Washington’s Navy.’

John Glover is truly one of the forgotten men of American history. Born in 1732 a few houses away from the building where the accused Salem witches were imprisoned four decades earlier, he was apprenticed to a shoemaker and later moved to Marblehead, where he saved his money and bought a schooner. As a mariner he earned enough to purchase more ships. He joined the Marblehead militia in 1759 and soon worked his way up to the rank of captain of a ‘Military company of foot in the town of Marblehead.’ By 1776 he had become the regiment’s colonel. Washington knew that Glover was just the man to get his army out of its desperate situation. He also knew that there were spies in the ranks — one soldier had already been tried and hanged for his treachery and several others had been found guilty and put in prison — so he sent a misleading message to General William Heath on Manhattan: ‘We have many battalions from New Jersey which are coming over this evening to relieve those here. Order every flat-bottomed boat and other craft fit for transportation of troops down to New York as soon as possible.’ Then he ordered his quartermaster ‘to impress every kind of craft on either side of New York’ that had oars or sails, and to have them in the East River by dark. Anyone intercepting the messages would think that Washington was planning to bring reinforcements to Long Island in reality he hoped to evacuate his entire army before the British realized what he was doing.

The weather was still on Washington’s side. A drenching storm kept ‘Black Dick’s’ fleet out of the river and provided cover for the boat gathering. Late in the afternoon Washington met with his staff to tell them his real plans. As Colonel Benjamin Tallmadge wrote in a letter, ‘to move so large a body of troops with all their necessary appendages across a river a full mile wide, with a rapid current, in the face of a victorious, well-disciplined army nearly three times as numerous seemed . . . to present most formidable obstacles.’ The colonel was guilty of understatement.

The August nights were short, and Washington knew that if Glover had miscalculated the time required for the Herculean job, he would lose any troops unlucky enough to remain on the island at dawn. He had faith in the ‘tough little terrier of a man,’ and to help him he assigned a regiment of men from the Massachusetts towns of Salem, Lynn, and Danvers, sailors all.

The seamen began their work as soon as it was dark, about ten o’clock. The drenched Continentals left their entrenchments unit by unit and moved to the boats in darkness and in absolute silence. Each unit was told only that they were being relieved and were going back to Manhattan. They did not know that the entire army was doing the same thing. By the time any disloyal soldier discovered the truth, it would be too late for treachery. The quartermaster’s men had found only a few sailing craft, so there was much rowing to be done that night. At first the winds were favorable and the boats swiftly made the round trip to Manhattan, despite darkness and unfamiliar waters. Seamen in the rowboats plied them back and forth without a stop, oars muffled, across the fast East River current.

Washington stayed in the saddle, weary though he must have been. For several hours the situation looked favorable, but then the wind changed, blowing in combination with the unusually strong ebb tide. The sails could not overcome the two combined forces. Washington’s despair was partially alleviated when the men rigged the sailboats with temporary tholes, found oars, and rowed. But the tired general realized that many rearguard troops would still be on the island when dawn broke. Their loss would be a serious blow. Yet the seamen continued their race against time. ‘It was one of the most anxious, busy nights that I ever recollect,’ Benjamin Tallmadge recalled, ‘and being the third in which hardly any of us had closed our eyes in sleep, we were all greatly fatigued.’ At one point a rearguard unit under Colonel Edward Hand mistakenly received orders to move down to the water. Its movement left a gap in the lines that the British, had they been aware of it, could have used to smash through the American defenses. But the British didn’t know, and Washington, when he saw what had happened, hurriedly ordered the unit back into place.

In a few more hours luck rejoined the patriots. The wind changed direction and Glover’s men could again use their sails to speedily make the crossings and return. The tempo of the evacuation picked up, but the fickle wind had done its damage. As the dim first-light appeared in the cloudy, gray eastern sky, part of the rear guard was still on the wrong side of the river. As the sky lightened, however, a dense fog rolled in, obscuring the operation’s final movements. Colonel Tallmadge was in one of the last units to leave, and with regret he left his horse tied on the Long Island shore. Safe in New York, the fog as thick as ever, Tallmadge said, ‘I began to think of my favorite horse, and requested leave to return and bring him off. Having obtained permission, I called for a crew of volunteers to go with me, and guiding the boat myself, I obtained my horse and got some distance before the enemy appeared in Brooklyn.’ When the morning fog began to lift and the British patrols warily came to check on the American breastworks, they found them empty. Washington and the last of the rear guard were aboard the boats and sailing to safety. George Washington’s faith in John Glover and the seagoing soldiers had been vindicated. In about nine hours they had whisked 9,000 men and their supplies and cannon out from under the noses of the British. The Revolutionary cause lived on. Later that day, August 30, 10 British frigates and 20 gunboats and sloops finally sailed up the river. They were too late.

This article was written by J. Jay Myers and originally published in the June 2001 issue of American History Časopis. For more great articles, subscribe to American History časopis dnes!


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